Burundi/Tanzania: Cholera Outbreak - May 2015
On 13 May 2015, 15 cases of acute diarrhoeal disease among Burundian refugees in Tanzania were reportedly negative for cholera. However, on 16 May, two samples from the Nyarugusu camp in Kigoma region tested positive, and the number of acute diarrhoea diseases cases rapidly climbed to over 1,000 cases. On 17 May, 13 additional samples tested positive for cholera. (WHO, 19 May 2015)
The Ministry of Health and Social Welfare (MOHSW) of Tanzania has notified WHO of new foci of cholera outbreaks in the country. As of 13 October, 13 regions have been affected, namely Dar es Salaam, Morogoro, Pwani, Kigoma, Kilimanjaro, Iringa, Dodoma, Geita, Mara, Singida, Shinyaga, Mwanza and Zanzibar. As of 19 October, the cumulative number of cases is 4,835 cases, including 68 deaths. The region of Dar es Salam accounts for 72% of all reported cases (3,460). Zanzibar has reported 140 cases. (WHO, 21 Sep 2015)
In January-March 2016, [n]ew regions began to experience cholera transmission, include Iringa, Manyara and Mbeya. There was an increase in new cholera cases in Morogoro, Mwanza, Mara, Dodoma, Singida, Arusha and Simiyu. In April-May 2016, [...] new Cholera cases are still being reported in regions across Tanzania mainland, there is a reduction in the new cholera cases and deaths in the hot spot regions. (IFRC, 31 May 2016)
As of 18 May 2015, the Burundi Health Ministry confirmed 11 cases of cholera under treatment in the Nyanza Lac health center in the southern Makamba Province, which borders Tanzania (OCHA, 18 May 2015).
As of 21 May, more than 2,400 suspected cases of cholera, including 33 deaths, had been reported among Burundian refugees in Tanzania; on the Burundi side of the border there are 15 suspected cholera cases. (UNICEF, 21 May 2015)
The cholera outbreak in Nyanza Lac Commune, Makamba Province is now under control with only one case reported in the treatment centers in the last two weeks. Since the outbreak on 14 May, a total of 181 cholera cases have been reported. (OCHA, 31 Jul 2015)
Two cholera outbreaks were declared in 3 different districts in southern Burundi, with a cumulative total of 22 cases with no deaths reported in 2016. All patients have been treated in a timely manner as a result of preparedness, including the prepositioning of cholera kits in cholera-prone health districts. To address timely and quality reporting of cholera, UNICEF continued its support to the MoH by providing training on Rapid Pro to healthcare workers in cholera-prone districts and provinces. (UNICEF, 30 Jun 2016)
Most read reports
- Regional Outlook for the Horn of Africa and the Great Lakes Region: Recommendations for Humanitarian Action and Resilience Response, April-June 2016 [EN/AR]
- El Niño and Health: Global Overview, January 2016
- Southern Africa Humanitarian Outlook 2015/2016: Special Focus on El Niño
- OCHA Eastern Africa/Flash Update 7 - Elections Crisis in Burundi and Regional Impacts, 18 May 2015
- Humanitarian Outlook for the Horn of Africa and the Great Lakes Region (October - December 2015)
This is a preliminary report; the final narrative and financial reports will be published on 31 December 2017.
April 2015: Influx of Burundian refugees fleeing pre-election violence start arriving in neighbouring countries.
This Weekly Bulletin focuses on selected acute public health emergencies occurring in the WHO African Region. The WHO Health Emergencies Programme is currently monitoring 46 events in the region. This week’s edition covers key ongoing events, including:
Plague in Madagascar
Marburg virus disease in Uganda
Cholera in Tanzania
Cholera in north-east Nigeria
Necrotizing cellulitis/fasciitis in São Tomé and Príncipe
Humanitarian crisis in South Sudan.
This Weekly Bulletin focuses on selected acute public health emergencies occurring in the WHO African Region. The WHO Health Emergencies Programme is currently monitoring 44 events in the region. This week’s edition covers key new and ongoing events, including:
Dengue fever in Senegal
Dengue fever in Burkina Faso
Plague in Madagascar
Marburg virus disease in Uganda
Yellow fever in Nigeria
Humanitarian Crisis in Central African Republic
Morogoro, 13-18 August 2017: The United Republic of Tanzania is battling an outbreak of Cholera that has since August 2015 affected 26,046 people and claimed 410 lives. Ending the outbreak and preventing its spread beyond Tanzania's borders is a high priority for WHO. To that end, WHO and partners support a well-coordinated multisectoral response through the National Cholera Task Force which plans, coordinates and support subnational authorities.
The full implementation of this version of the HIP is subject to the adoption of the decision amending Decision C(2016) 8795 final
AMOUNT: EUR 37 000 000
A. Situation analysis
Description of the disaster
April 2015: Following the President’s decision to run for another term tensions and violence erupts in the capital of Bujumbura and some provinces. This resulted in a number of casualties in the capital and large numbers of people fleeing the country.
June and July 2015: Presidential elections went ahead, however following Nkurunziza’s electoral success, opposition groups in exile aligned to form the National Council for the Restoration of the Arusha Accords.
After two years of providing emergency medical care to refugees from Democratic Republic of Congo and Burundi in Nyarugusu camp, Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF) will be closing its facilities on 31 May 2017. Following its departure, MSF will concentrate on continuing to provide healthcare services at nearby Nduta camp, where the needs are now greater.
This is the first consolidated presentation of the reported results of CERF funding, covering a full year of CERF allocations. As such, it serves as a pilot and will inform future CERF results reporting. This report was compiled on the basis of information provided by Resident Coordinators/Humanitarian Coordinators (RC/ HCs) and Humanitarian Country Teams (HCTs) in 66 consolidated reports covering the results of more than 450 CERF-funded projects.
During the warmer, wetter weather, 50,000 additional cases occur in East Africa as compared to years without El Niño
Cholera cases in East Africa increase by roughly 50,000 during El Niño, the cyclical weather occurrence that profoundly changes global weather patterns, new Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health research suggests.
The findings, researchers say, could help health ministries anticipate future cholera surges during El Niño years and save lives.
• Tanzania outbreak continues but with significant reduction in cases.
• A small outbreak in North Western Zambia bordering with DRC is reported to be under control and managed by MOH.
• Angola has seen a reduction in cases but the last official report available is that of week 8 - 26 February.
This weekly update focuses on selected acute public health emergencies occurring in the WHO African region. WHO AFRO is currently monitoring 34 events, two Grade 3, six Grade 2, two Grade 1, and 24 ungraded events.
This week, two new events have been reported: meningitis outbreak in Cameroon and cholera outbreak in Malawi.
The Joint Cholera Initiative for Southern Africa (JCISA) is a multi-agency technical partnership bringing together WHO, UNICEF, UNOCHA and OXFAM supporting national governments with the primary goal being to “strengthen regional capacity and collaboration in order to ensure more timely, integrated and effective technical support to countries in the areas of cholera preparedness, response and resilience”.
An outbreak of fall armyworm, a new pest in the region, has been reported in Zambia, Malawi, Zimbabwe, Botswana, South Africa, Namibia and Swaziland. Regionally, around 330,000 ha of staple crops (especially maize) have been affected. The remaining SADC mainland countries remain at high risk.
Rupa Narra, MD1,2*; Justin M. Maeda, MD3*; Herilinda Temba, MD3; Janneth Mghamba, MD3; Ali Nyanga, MD3; Ashley L. Greiner, MD1,4; Muhammad Bakari, PhD3; Karlyn D. Beer, PhD1,2; Sae-Rom Chae, MD1,2; Kathryn G. Curran, PhD1,2; Rachel B. Eidex, PhD5; James J. Gibson, MD5; Thomas Handzel, PhD4; Stephen J. Kiberiti3; Rogath S. Kishimba, MD6; Haji Lukupulo6; Theophil Malibiche3; Khalid Massa, PhD3; Amani E. Massay6; Lindsey S. McCrickard, DVM1,2; Geofrey J. Mchau3; Vida Mmbaga, MD3; Ahmed A. Mohamed, PhD6; Elibariki R. Mwakapeje3; Emmanuel Nestory6; Anna E.
Pleasing to report is the noticeable decline in cases in Tanzania – for week six, only 20 cases were reported and indeed, the daily bulletin for 19 February states that “No (0) new suspected cholera case was reported”. This is the first zero case report since the current outbreak started in August 2015!
The outbreak in Soyo, North West Angola has now spread to Cabinda; the Angolan enclave north of the Congo river (see map), with a total of 146 cases reported between 13 December 2016 and 18 January 2017 (latest Government Bulletin). The Ministry of Health has activated the Cholera prevention Commission (Comissão de luta contra o cólera), and have produced a national strategic epidemic response plan on 09 January 2017. This lays down responsibilities at all levels from National to municipal authorities.
A. Situation analysis
Description of the disaster
Summary of major revisions made to emergency plan of action:
INTRODUCTION AND BACKGROUND
Tanzania has been a consistent and generous host to millions of refugees over the years. The country has supported UNHCR and partners in all three durable solutions - from voluntary repatriation to countries of origin, resettlement to other countries willing to share the burden of displacement, to the unprecedented gift of citizenship for almost 200,000 former 1972 Burundian refugees. The test of time did not weaken the generosity; when the ongoing political tension in Burundi caused thousands of Burundians to flee to Tanzania.