Niger: Meningitis and Measles Outbreaks - Apr 2015
Niger's Ministry of Public Health officially declared measles and meningitis outbreaks on 1 Apr 2015 (OCHA, 14 Apr 2015). As of 18 Apr, the meningitis outbreak had affected all regions except Diffa, with 905 cases recorded since the beginning of the year and a fatality rate of 9,39 per cent. Three health districts had reached the epidemic threshold, with Niamey being the most affected with almost 400 cases. The total number of measles cases stood at 3,080 since the beginning of the year, with 12 health districts having reached the epidemic threshold. Zinder was the most affected region with 2,072 cases. (OCHA, 20 Apr 2015)
By 25 Apr, the number of suspected meningitis cases had increased to 1,543, including 147 deaths. An international investigation team composed of WHO and CDC was deployed to support the Ministry of Public Health’s investigation of the outbreak and reinforce the surveillance capacity in the country. (WHO, 29 Apr 2015)
By 12 May, the number of suspected meningitis cases had tripled to 6,179, including 423 deaths. Eleven districts from the regions of Niger, which includes the capital city, had crossed the epidemic threshold. This includes all five districts in Niamey, where 4,099 suspected cases, including 226 deaths, had been reported. (WHO, 15 May 2015)
As of 25 June, 5,398 suspected measles cases have been registered in Niger including 20 deaths. Zinder region registered 2,869 cases (53% of the total number of cases registered). (UNICEF, 31 Jul 2015)
By 28 Jun, 8,500 suspected meningitis cases and 573 deaths had been reported, and 13 districts had crossed the epidemic threshold. The outbreak peaked in week 19 (4 to 10 May) with 2,182 cases and 132 deaths. The following week (11-17 May) only 1,283 cases and 69 deaths were recorded. Since then, the outbreak has been on the decline with just 11 cases including two deaths reported in week 26 (22 to 28 June 2015). (WHO, 8 Jul 2015)
On 28 Jul, PAHO declared that Africa was at risk of a large meningitis outbreak, and warned that an acute shortage of meningitis C-containing vaccine threatened to severely limit the world’s ability to minimize the number of people affected. (PAHO, 28 Jul 2015)
Early August (week 32), the number of measles cases reached 5,546 while the number of meningitis cases reached 8,520. (OCHA, 28 Aug 2015)
Three Years of Humanitarian Action
Epidemic outbreaks, population displacements and floods are just some of the situations to which EMUSA (MSF’s rapid emergency response team in Niger and Mali) has responded during the 15 months Adolphe Masudi has worked as EMUSA coordinator. Here, Adolphe tells us about his experience.
What was the first emergency you had to face with EMUSA?
The Year in Review
As the final year of the 2014 - 2016 Humanitarian response plan progresses, looking back on last year’s achievements also provides the opportunity to thank donors for their continued engagement and generosity in the Sahel. Donors provided over US$1.2 billion in 2015 enabling one hundred organisations to work across nine countries in one of the world’s major humanitarian operations.
A. Situation analysis
Description of the disaster
Niger is a West African country located in the heart of the African meningitis belt, which stretches from Senegal to Djibouti. The hot and dry climate is favourable to the outbreak of meningitis epidemics generally between November and May. In April 2015, following an escalation in meningitis cases (from December 2015) an epidemic was officially declared by the Ministry of Public Health.
Note: l'UNHCR a renforcé les capacités des Centres de Santé Intégrés (CSI) de Mangaizé et Tlemces dans la riposte vaccinale.
Un système de suivi et de vaccination systématique de tous les nouveaux arrivés dans les camps a été mis en place.La majorité des cas détectés concernent les personnes âgées de plus de 15 ans.
Snapshot 9 – 15 March
Yemen: Insecurity in Aden is increasing, with attacks carried out on civilian targets. At least 150 people have been reported killed in the past three months, including at least 50 in March. Humanitarian actors have increasing difficulty to carry out operations. In Taizz, the west of the city has been taken by pro-Hadi forces after heavy fighting: fighting for the east continues.
Snapshot 2–8 March 2016
Malawi and Mozambique: Flooding and drought have led to the most severe food crisis Malawi has faced in a decade: 2.8 million people face acute food insecurity, including 900,000 facing Crisis (IPC Phase 3) food security outcomes. In Mozambique, an estimated 600,000 people are in Crisis due to drought. In addition, 9,300 Mozambicans in Malawi who fled armed conflict need WASH, health and shelter assistance.
A. Situation analysis
Description of the disaster
Total affected population: 2 million
Total affected children (under 18): 1.1 million
Total people to be reached in 2016: 1 million
Total children to be reached in 2016: 800,000
2016 programme targets
400,794 children under 5 years suffering from SAM admitted into therapeutic feeding programmes
183,615 children aged 6 to 59 months in Diffa Region received vitamin A supplementation every semester Health
Population movements continue to take place in the Lake Chad region as insecurity continues to deteriorate. The humanitarian community estimates at 82,782 the number of refugees, IDPs, returnees and thirdcountry nationals currently displaced in the Lake region. Of these, 52,300 are IDPs from the latest wave of massive displacement which began in July 2015.
As of 21 September, OCHA reported that 68,000 people have fled their homes since July (IDPs, Chadian returnees and refugees from Nigeria and from Niger): amongst them 47,000 are IDPs.
El Salvador: More than 100,000 farmers are estimated to be affected by crop losses due to a prolonged dry-spell. Up to 60% of the total maize crop has been lost in the affected areas. An estimated 156,000 people are facing Crisis (IPC Phase 3) food security outcomes, mainly in eastern and western regions.
Bangladesh: 1.5 million people are affected by flooding, which has displaced around 320,000 people in the areas of Cox's Bazar, Chittagong, and Bandarban. Shelter, WASH and food security are key priorities. 15 out 24 rivers are over danger levels as heavy rainfall continues.
Libya: An estimated 2,244 people have died this year as a result of conflict, and nearly one-third of the country’s population is affected. Humanitarian access remains severely restricted.