Kenya: Cholera Outbreak - Feb 2015Ongoing
Kenya reported a cholera outbreak that affected 30 of its 47 counties. The outbreak begun on 26 December 2014, in Nairobi County and was later reported in other counties with the latest being in Mandera and Tana River counties. Mandera County had also been experiencing a febrile illness presenting with joint pains that begun in May 2016...Mandera County...was the latest county to report cholera outbreak...The outbreak was first reported in March 2016, with 894 cases reported by 12 April 2016. By the end of the response, 1629 cases had been reported with 18 deaths recorded - Case Fatality Rate (CFR) of 1.1%. KRCS reached a total of 391,941 people through awareness sessions conducted in house to house visits including revisits, demonstration of hand washing and hand washing facilities. (IFRC, 31 Jan 2017)
Cholera outbreak continues in two counties – Garissa County (specifically Dadaab Refugee Complex) and Tana River County. In Dadaab, 55 cases of cholera (15 culture positive) were recorded in Dagahaley, Hagadera, Ifo 1 and Ifo 2 camps as of 29 April, while 5 new cases were recorded in Garsen and Minjila towns in Tana River County between 20 and 28 April. Majority of cases in Dadaab are linked to newly arriving refugees (from Sakow village in Somalia) and households hosting them. (UNICEF, 05 May 2017)
As of 19 June, there is an active cholera outbreak in five counties (Garissa, Nairobi, Muranga, Turkana and Nakuru) with 581 confirmed cases and seven deaths (CFR 1.2 per cent). (UNICEF, 19 Jun 2017)
From 1 January through 29 November 2017, a total of 3967 laboratory-confirmed and probable cases including 76 deaths (case fatality rate = 1.9%) were reported by the Ministry of Health to WHO. Of the cases reported, 596 were laboratory confirmed. From 1 January 2017 through 29 November, 20 of 47 counties (43%) in Kenya have reported cases. As of 29 November, seven counties continue to have active cholera outbreaks (Embu, Garissa, Kirinyaga, Mombasa, Nairobi, Turkana, and Wajir). (WHO, 11 Dec 2017)
Kenya: 181 new cases including 1 death (CFR, 0.6%) were reported in week 9 compared to 88 cases including 5 deaths (CFR, 5.7%) reported in week 8. New cases emerged from 6 Counties, namely Siaya (36), Garissa (2), Murang’a (47), Turkana (53), West Pokot (25) and Trans Nzoia (18 cases and 1 death). Cumulatively a total of 6,003 cases including 130 deaths have been reported, as from October 2016. Of these, a total of 1,704 cases and 41 deaths have been reported since the beginning of 2018. (UNICEF, 20 Mar 2018)
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Cholera originated in Asia, but now presents a global threat.
This acute intestinal disease is biologically caused by exposure to the vibrio cholerae bacteria, but it’s fed socially by poor water and sanitation, limited health systems, crowding and poverty. With all these conditions present in abundance across the African continent, cholera outbreaks happen most frequently there relative to all other parts of the world. This leads in many cases to high numbers of deaths, high costs to health systems and regular social disruption.
• Following security operations and political tensions, some 10,557 people from the Oromia region in Moyale, Ethiopia, have been displaced across the border to Moyale in Marsabit county, Kenya, since 10 March. More than 80% of the asylum seekers are women and children, including 600 pregnant women and 1,500 children under five. UNICEF is supporting response coordination and is providing WASH, Health, Nutrition, Child Protection and NFIs support.
The Horn of Africa has been grappling with the effects of consecutive failed rains across Kenya, Ethiopia and Somalia that led to 12 million people in need of humanitarian assistance at the start of 2017.
Children bore the brunt of the crisis as their families struggled to survive in a worsening situation that resulted in malnutrition, increased susceptibility to diseases, limited access to school and exposure to protection concerns as families would migrate in search of food and water.
This Weekly Bulletin focuses on selected acute public health emergencies occurring in the WHO African Region. The WHO Health Emergencies Programme is currently monitoring 57 events in the region. This week’s edition covers key ongoing events, including:
With below average rains experienced across the region, some locations in the Horn of Africa are expected to continue to drive humanitarian needs for the next six months. A weak La Niña will likely persist into the second quarter of 2018, which is historically associated with below average rainfall.
According to experts who spoke in the 48th Greater Horn of Africa Climate Outlook Forum, La Niña could trigger severe hunger and lack of water for both humans and livestock, potentially increase conflict between communities over scarce resources and could increased migrations.
Abdhalah Ziraba, Associate Research Scientist, African Population and Health Research Center
By ERIC MATARA
At least five cases of cholera have been reported in Naivasha town.
The patients from Kihoto, an informal settlement in the town, are undergoing treatment at Naivasha Sub-County hospital even as the county health department remains quiet on the matter.
A public health official, who spoke on condition of anonymity on Tuesday, told the Nation that the patients were responding well to treatment.
This Weekly Bulletin focuses on selected acute public health emergencies occurring in the WHO African Region. The WHO Health Emergencies Programme is currently monitoring 52 events in the region. This week’s edition covers key ongoing events, including:
More than 11,181 cholera / AWD cases and 186 deaths (Case Fatality Rate, 1.7%) have been reported in 10 of 21 countries of Eastern and Southern Africa Region (ESAR) since the beginning of 2018. These countries include; Angola, Kenya, Malawi, Mozambique, Rwanda, Somalia, Tanzania, Uganda, Zambia and Zimbabwe.
This Weekly Bulletin focuses on selected acute public health emergencies occurring in the WHO African Region. The WHO Health Emergencies Programme is currently monitoring 53 events in the region. This week’s edition covers key new and ongoing events, including:
Listeriosis in Namibia
Cholera in north-east Nigeria
Cholera in Malawi
Hepatitis E in Namibia
Lassa fever in Liberia
Humanitarian crisis in Central African Republic
By STEPHEN ODUOR
The cholera outbreak in Tana River has been contained, county executive member for health has said.
Speaking to the Nation, Ms Mwanajuma Haboka said only five patients were admitted to the county’s cholera treatment unit in Bura with two new cases reported in Daba.
The two patients have been referred to Hola District Hospital where they are being treated.
She also said that the 251 people who had been infected had so far been treated and were discharged from the various treatment units in stable condition.
In an apparent response to a clash between the Ethiopian military and regional authorities of Oromia State in Ethiopia, the Ethiopian military opened fire on the civilian population leading to 13 deaths, 20 injuries and 16 reported missing.
The aftermath of this armed encounter has resulted in the displacement of approximately 8 200 people (over 95% are women and children) fleeing serious unrest in their areas of origin to neighbouring Kenya (Moyale county).
By STEPHEN ODUOR
The number of people suspected to be infected with cholera in Tana River County has risen to 242 as the county health personnel continue to investigate the source of infection.
Health officers in Tana River County are yet to establish the source of the disease, more than a month since it was first reported.
The county director of Health, Dr Oscar Endekwa said seven more cases were confirmed Wednesday.
Dr Endekwa said water samples have been taken to Mombasa for testing.
• Results of the 2017 Short Rains Assessment released on 2nd March indicate that 2.55 million people are food insecure, down from 3.4 million.
• A total of 5,891 severely malnourished children and 13,029 moderately malnourished children were admitted for treatment in January 2018.
• According to January and February Nutrition surveys, the caseload of severely malnourished children has reduced by 16% from 6 months ago, with a reduction of 7% in the number of moderately malnourished children.
The WHO Health Emergencies Programme is currently monitoring 50 events in the region. This week’s edition covers key new and ongoing events, including:
- Listeriosis in South Africa
- Rift Valley fever in South Sudan
- Lassa fever in Nigeria
- Cholera in Uganda
- Humanitarian crisis in Democratic Republic of the Congo
For each of these events, a brief description followed by public health measures implemented and an interpretation of the situation is provided.
By NDUNGU GACHANE
Mr Mbai said the disease was spread through drinking contaminated water from River Gathwariga.
Families of the victims want the county to offer them financial assistance to bury their relatives.
Three more people have died following a cholera outbreak in Kiunyu village in Gatanga, bringing the number of fatalities to five.
Murang’a Health executive Joseph Mbai said two people passed away on Tuesday and one on Thursday.
By STEPHEN ODUOR
Some 218 people are suspected to be infected with cholera in the hunger-prone county.
County director for Health Oscar Endekwa said the new cases were reported to have emerged from a wedding ceremony in Bura.
Tana River County government has appealed for help curb the fast spread of the cholera menace.
Six more people have tested positive for cholera in Tana River County, bringing to 90 the number of those infected.
A report by the County public health officer Samuel Jefwa said field investigations to determine the source of the infection had not been done as they have to borrow equipment to test the water.
He said the infection is fast spreading.
The number of people suspected to be infected with cholera in Tana River County has risen to 227, up from 218 last week as the county health personnel continue to investigate the source of infection.
More than 8,459 cholera / AWD cases and 150 deaths (Case Fatality Rate, 1.8%) have been reported in 10 of 21 countries of Eastern and Southern Africa Region (ESAR) since the beginning of 2018. These countries include; Angola, Kenya, Malawi, Mozambique, Rwanda, Somalia, Tanzania, Uganda, Zambia and Zimbabwe.