South Sudan: Kala-azar Outbreak - Sep 2014
Starting in mid-2014, Kala-azar (Visceral Leishmaniasis) cases started to increase considerably in South Sudan. Kala-azar is endemic in Upper Nile, Unity, Jonglei and Eastern Equatoria states, and the peak season usually starts during or shortly after the rainy season. In 2014, the peak season started in April, due to displacement, insecurity, low immunity and limited access to treatment. By the beginning of September, over 4,000 cases and 102 deaths had been recorded. (WHO, 16 Sep 2014)
By 12 Dec, the number of cases and deaths had increased to 7,204 and 199 respectively. In comparison, 2,992 cases and 88 deaths had been reported over the same period in 2013. A reduction in reported cases noted over the last 10 weeks was most likely caused by lack of access to treatment centers due to floods or insecurity. (WHO, 22 Dec 2014)
By March 2015, a total of 1,194 Kala-azar cases and 33 deaths had been reported from 16 treatment centers since the beginning of the year. In comparison 1,146 cases and 25 deaths were reported during the same period in 2014. Underreporting from the treatment centers complicates meaningful interpretation of trends, as many health facilities remain inaccessible due to insecurity. (WHO, 22 Mar 2015)
Viral leishmaniasis (or kala-azar) continues to be a concern. From January through July, a total of 2,308 cases and 72 deaths (with a case fatality rate of 3.1 per cent) were reported from 15 treatment centres. Partners continue to support enhanced surveillance, case management and interventions to prevent transmission.(Report of the Secretary-General on South Sudan (S/2015/655))
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Monica RullEmail authorView ORCID ID profile, Sophie Masson, Nicolas Peyraud, Marco Simonelli, Alexandre Ventura, Claire Dorion, Francisco J. Luquero, Florent Uzzeni and Iza Cigleneki
Conflict and Health 201812:11
https://doi.org/10.1186/s13031-018-0147-z© The Author(s). 2018
Infectious diseases continue to pose a major public health threat in South Sudan. Adding to the chronic burden of disease, regular outbreaks further threaten people's health.
In a conflict setting, WHO and partners are responding to multiple outbreaks including cholera, malaria, measles, suspected hemorrhagic fever, and kala-azar.
Snapshot 9–15 December 2015
Completeness for weekly reporting in week 40 of 2015 was 78%, which is lower when compared to 92% in week 39 of 2015 and 92% in week 40 of 2014.
These updates cover emergencies Oxfam is currently responding to around the world, although please note they don’t intend to be comprehensive.
Fighting on the ground is spreading throughout the country. Air strikes are continuing and more and more civilians are losing their lives to land mines.
South Sudan is a landlocked country of approximately 640,000km2 . It was formed in 2011, gaining independence from Sudan. It is bordered by Sudan, Ethiopia, Kenya, Uganda, Democratic Republic of Congo, and Central African Republic. Abyei region is claimed by both Sudan and South Sudan, with its final status pending negotiations between the two countries (CIA Factbook, 2015). The country is divided into 10 states, with the capital being Juba.
(covering the period from 14 April to 19 August 2015)
- The present report is submitted pursuant to Security Council resolution 2223 (2015), by which the Council extended the mandate of the United Nations Mission in South Sudan (UNMISS) until 30 November 2015 and requested that I report on the implementation of the Mission’s mandate by no later than 17 August 2015. This report provides an update to my previous report (S/2015/296) dated 29 April 2015, and covers developments from 14 April to 12 August 2015.
Snapshot 15–21 July 2015
Iraq: More than 74,440 people have been displaced from Saqlawiyah in Falluja district since 8 July, and tens of thousands reportedly remain trapped in Falluja and Ramadi districts. There are now more than 3.1 million IDPs across 3,613 locations in Iraq; 300,000 people have been displaced from and within Anbar since military operations began in April.
Snapshot 8–14 July 2015
Yemen: More than 1,500 civilians have been killed since conflict began to escalate in March, and airstrikes and fighting continue despite the agreement to a six-day humanitarian pause over 11–17 July. There are now 1.26 million IDPs in the country – a 24% increase since mid-June. Only 20% of the fuel needed is available in the country, which is impacting upon all basic needs.
Snapshot 1–7 July 2015
Syria: Civilian deaths made up 81% of the total death toll in June, which was 2,137, bringing the total number of people killed so far in 2015 to 11,000. 705,000 people have been displaced in the first five months of this year: 439,000 were internally displaced, and the vast majority of the rest fled to Turkey.
Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF) has resumed activities in Melut, Upper Nile state, 16 days after renewed fighting in mid-May forced the organisation to suspend medical activities and evacuate staff. The ongoing conflict and recurrent periods of shelling in Malakal and Melut are still making it difficult both for MSF teams to access the population to provide medical assistance and for populations to access healthcare facilities.
Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF) employs more than 2,800 South Sudanese staff and more than 300 international staff to respond to a wide range of medical emergencies and provide free and high quality healthcare to people in need.
MSF teams are currently running medical projects in six of South Sudan’s ten states and the Abyei Administrative Area. MSF also provides life-saving medical assistance to South Sudanese refugees in neighbouring countries.
Humanitarian access remains constrained, particularly in the areas where fighting is concentrated. Large populations remain in hiding, unable to access health services.
The safety of humanitarian workers on the ground has become an increasing concern following the shooting of health workers in an ambush in Tonj South, Warrap State.
One cholera case has been confirmed at UN House PoC after testing positive to laboratory tests (Culture).
Completeness for weekly reporting in week 22 of 2015 was 84% compared to 86% in week 21 of 2015 and 53% in week 22 of 2014.
ARI, malaria, AWD, ABD and suspect measles are the top causes of morbidity among IDPs with the proportionate morbidity for malaria, ARI, ABD and measles increasing, while AWD decreased in week 22 of 2015 when compared to week 21 of 2015.
Over 4.6 million people are in urgent need of humanitarian assistance. The humanitarian situation continues to deteriorate as fighting escalates in southern Unity and Upper Nile states, leading to a number of causalities and a new wave of displacements.
Humanitarian access continues to shrink as more places continue to be cut off and huge populations continue not to be accessed with medical and humanitarian assistance.
Snapshot 6–12 May 2015
Iraq: Conflict has escalated in a number of locations. In Anbar, fighting has displaced more than 47,000 in Karmah district, and more than 133,000 around Ramadi. Clashes between Islamic State and government forces have intensified around Baiji oil refinery, in Salah al Din.
Completeness for weekly reporting in week 18 of 2015 was 91% compared to 76% in week 17 of 2015 and 76% in week 18 of 2014.
ARI, malaria, AWD, ABD and suspect measles are the top causes of morbidity among IDPs with the proportionate morbidity for ARI, malaria, ABD and measles representing an increase while AWD decreased in week 18 of 2015 when compared to week 17 of 2015.
Snapshot 29 April–5 May 2015
Nepal: The death toll from the earthquake has reached 7,250, with more than 14,000 injured. Aftershocks are still occurring, and some villages have still not been reached. 300,000 homes are estimated to need rebuilding or repair.
Yemen: The estimated number of IDPs has doubled since 17 April to reach 300,000, as conflict continues. Food distribution, health, and WASH systems are on the verge of collapse, due in large part to severe fuel shortages.
Snapshot 22–28 April 2015
Nepal: The 7.8 magnitude earthquake that hit the country on 25 April has affected 8 million people. As of 28 April, 5,057 people have been reported dead, and more than 8,500 injured. Hundreds of thousands of people are living in tents, while the villages closest to the quake’s epicentre remain inaccessible.