West/Central Africa: Meningitis Outbreak - Jan 2012
A meningitis outbreak affected several countries in West and Central Africa in the first half of 2012. As of 13 May 2012, a cumulative number of 800 cases and 78 deaths were reported in Benin. In Burkina Faso, a total of 5,558 cases and 590 deaths were reported. In Chad, a total of 3,636 suspected cases and 154 deaths were reported from 49 districts and a total of 12 districts crossed the epidemic threshold. (WHO, 26 May 2012)
By mid-April, the number of cases had started to decrease (WHO, 30 Jun 2012).
In the past decade, chronic food insecurity and malnutrition, cyclical drought, locust infestations, seasonal floods, disease outbreaks, and recurrent complex emergencies have presented significant challenges to vulnerable populations in the West Africa region. Between FY 2004 and FY 2013, USAID’s Office of U.S.
In Syria, heavy fighting continues between the Government and opposition groups as well as infighting within the opposition. Against this background, the UN Security Council endorsed the Russia-US agreement on the elimination of Syria’s chemical stockpile. There are now over 2.1 million Syrian refugees in neighbouring countries. As of 27 September, heavy shelling is preventing an estimated 70,000 Syrian refugees from crossing into Jordan, leading them to face severe food insecurity as they remain stranded on the border.
L’environnement social, économique et politique du Niger est resté stable au cours des six premiers mois de l’année 2013. Par contre, les conditions sécuritaires se sont graduellement dégradées avec deux attentats terroristes perpétrés durant le mois de mai contre une garnison militaire et des intérêts français dans le nord du pays (Agadez et Arlit), ainsi que l’évasion, en juin 2013, d’une vingtaine de détenus de la prison civile de Niamey, dont un présumé terroriste très dangereux.
NEEDS REMAIN HIGH
Food security and nutrition in the Sahel have improved somewhat since the acute crisis in 2012, following better rains and harvests. However, the effects of the recent crisis are not so quickly erased.
Chad continues on its path towards stabilisation and sustainable recovery. Peace dividends such as an improved security environment and political stability have reinforced the country’s status as a host nation for people affected by conflict in neighbouring countries in a region marked by political turmoil.
Following ethnic violence in Darfur, Sudan, more than 27,000 refugees and 25,000 returnees fled to Chad in the border town of Tissi.
6,500 refugees from CAR registered in Southern Chad.
9,659 new SAM admissions on March 2013; 25,593 total admissions for the first quarter of 2013.
For 2012, the annual caseload of severe acute malnutrition (SAM) across the Sahel Band was estimated at 127,300 children under five years of age, based on August 2011 nutrition survey results. As of December, 146,685 cases of SAM have been admitted for treatment (115.2%). According to the last nutrition survey with SMART methods, the GAM rate is 18.9% in June 2012 across the Sahel belt;
UNICEF and the nutrition cluster estimate that 126,000 children will suffer from severe acute malnutrition in 2013 in the Sahel belt of Chad.
In this issue, a general overview of outbreaks that occurred within the WHO African Region between January and December 2012 is provided as well as a summary of ongoing outbreaks as reported by the Member States.
• Tchad: l'hospitalisation de dizaines d'enfants sans lien avec le vaccin contre la méningite (Romandie, 22 jan.)
• A determined mother saves her son from the clutches of malnutrition in Chad (UNICEF, 18 Jan.)
• Le Tchad veut inverser la tendance du VIH/sida d’ici 2015 (Xinhua, 24 jan.)
• Chad’s health system struggles to combat malnutrition (IRIN, 24 Jan.)
• Tchad: 336 réfugiés vivant au Cameroun regagnent N’Djamena (Xinhua, 22 jan.)
• Tchad: Le nouveau Premier Ministre et ses priorités (Journal du Tchad, 22 jan.)
- RESUME EXECUTIF
La bande sahélienne d’Afrique de l’ouest dont fait partie le Niger se trouve confrontée à des crises alimentaires de plus en plus fréquentes et de magnitude croissante. A cela s’ajoutent les suites des conflits armés en Libye et en Côte d’Ivoire en 2011, qui ont forcé au retour plus de 260 000 migrants. En l’absence de nouvelles opportunités économiques, la couverture des besoins vitaux de ces migrants et de leurs familles reste un défi.
The 2013 Sahel Strategy aims to respond to the ‘triple crisis’ currently affecting the Sahel: i) the continued humanitarian impact of acute crisis of 2012 due to factors such as drought in 2011, high food prices and low agriculture production; ii) the underlying chronic nature of food insecurity, malnutrition and the erosion of resilience in the region; and iii) the current Mali crisis, which has resulted in the significant displacement of IDPs within the country and an on-going exodus of refugees to neighbouring countries.
Despite recent political upheavals in Libya and neighbouring countries across the Sahel, Chad is on a steady path to sustainable recovery and stabilization.
Notification des maladies à potentiel épidémique ci-dessous dans les 9 pays touchés par la crise humanitaires, entre janvier et avril 2012
-898 cas de cholera dont 22 décès,
-11058 cas de méningite dont 846 décès et
-28292 cas de rougeole dont 183 décès
Soutien de L’OMS aux pays affectés à travers les dons de médicaments, l’appui à la mise en œuvre des interventions de lutte contre la maladie (campagnes de vaccination, renforcement des capacités) et la mobilisation des ressources financières.
Year to date admissions total 57,742 children. A significant increase in admissions for severe acute malnutrition (SAM) in all Sahel belt regions of Chad was observed between January and May.
UNICEF is supporting a network of 289 feeding centres inclusive of mobiles clinics, as well as refugee and IDP centres. Recently signed Project Cooperation Agreements with national and international NGOs will bring the number of UNICEF supported nutrition centres to almost 350 against a target of 468.
The food security and nutrition crisis in the Sahel is already affecting now more than 18 million people. The current food deficit has provoked a nutritional crisis resulting in significant illness and death from malnutrition and associated diseases especially in children under five years of age.
With the beginning of the rainy season, a new threat has appeared: on 20 June, the government of Niger appealed for international support to fight the early stages of an invasion of desert locusts in northern Niger. If not treated immediately, this plague will put the forthcoming harvest season (September-November) at high risk. The locusts are coming from outbreak areas along both sides of the Algeria/Libya border where infestations were triggered by desert rainfalls, and control operations were hampered by armed conflicts and insecurity.