Sierra Leone/Guinea: Cholera Outbreak - Feb 2012
Cholera outbreaks began around the same time at the beginning of 2012 in Sierra Leone and Guinea.
Since the beginning of the year, Sierra Leone has recorded 13,934 cases of cholera, with 232 deaths. The rate of new cases has accelerated rapidly since the beginning of August. The President of Sierra Leone has declared the escalating cholera epidemic a “humanitarian crisis”. Consequently, a high-level Presidential Cholera Task Force has been established to oversee coordination, mobilize resources and guide response. By 30 Aug, the numbers had risen to 13,934 reported cases and 232 deaths (WHO, 30 Aug 2012).
As of 16 September, the Guinea Ministry of Health had confirmed 6,599 cases, with 121 deaths. By that date, the epidemic had eased, with both countries reporting decreasing number of new cases for three weeks in a row (OCHA, 17 Sep 2012).
The outbreak in Sierra Leone had declined from a high of more than 2,000 cases per week at the peak of the outbreak in August, down to 16 cases at the beginning of 2013. Although this is a significant decline, cases are still being reported in four districts, requiring ongoing prevention and control efforts to ensure the outbreak does not spread further. (IFRC, 15 Feb 2013)
KEY MESSAGES REGIONAL CHOLERA STRATEGY
The “shield and sword” concept, a common language for a proactive, cross-border and multi-disciplinary strategy to prevent the spread of cholera
An evidence-based and multi-sectorial approach targeting high-risk populations, locales, periods and practices
Intervention at a national, cross-border and regional level both before and during outbreaks as well as over the long-term
Building bridges between emergency response and development programs
PARIS/NEW YORK—An oral cholera vaccine protected individuals by 86 percent during a recent outbreak in Guinea, according to a study published today in the New England Journal of Medicine (NEJM).
The study, conducted by Epicentre, research arm of the international medical humanitarian organization Doctors Without Borders/Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF), and the Guinean Ministry of Health, is the first to show that this particular oral cholera vaccine provides protection very quickly, and lends support to its use in control of future outbreaks.
This report presents the findings of an effectiveness review carried out on Oxfam's response to the 2012 cholera response in Sierra Leone that was undertaken through the application of Oxfam's Humanitarian Indicator Tool. Overall the response scored 87% and met or almost met nine of the 10 standards that were relevant to the response. This provides a measure of a high quality response, clearly exceeding the 60% cut-off point.
MSF vaccination campaign in Guinea shows feasibility of oral cholera vaccine for control of future epidemics
In a report published today in PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases, the international medical humanitarian organization Doctors Without Borders/Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF) and its scientific research arm, Epicentre, present results of one of the first-ever, large-scale uses of an oral cholera vaccine during a cholera outbreak—a major breakthrough in the understanding and future control of deadly cholera epidemics.
In this issue, a general overview of outbreaks that occurred within the WHO African Region between January and July 2013 is provided as well as a summary of ongoing outbreaks as reported by Member States.
Overview of reported outbreaks in WHO African Region
DAKAR, 16 August 2013 (IRIN) - More than 700 people have been sickened by cholera in Guinea-Bissau, the highest number of cases so far this year in West Africa, which has nonetheless seen a significant drop in cases this year compared to 2012.
Isolated health centres, insufficient medical personnel and detrimental traditional beliefs have contributed to the prevalence, explained Inàcio Alvarenga, an epidemiologist with World Health Organization (WHO).
Global Food Prices are 11 points higher in 2013 as compared to 2012.
48 per cent of the households in Guinea Bissau are facing a major food deficit, with enough cereal stocks to last for only one month.
Regional cholera rates declined in 2013 as compared to last year.
1,200 refugees voted in the Malian elections.
Malnutrition admission trends worrying in Niger, Chad, Nigeria,
Mali and Cameroon.
FREETOWN — Last year Sierra Leone had one of the worst cholera outbreaks in history - with 23,000 reported cases. The United Nations says close to 300 people died. Some measures have since been put in place to prevent another epidemic of what can be an easily preventable and treatable water-borne infection.
As heavy rain beats down on a market in the east part of Freetown, Adamsay Kamara rushes to cover her basket of bananas for sale. This is how the single mother makes a living at the market which is near her community of Mabela - a slum area of about 20,000 people.
6/8/2013 – A new strain of cholera with its origins in Southeast Asia has firmly anchored itself on African soil. More virulent than the ones traditionally found on the continent, this same strain was responsible for more than 8 000 deaths in Haïti and has touched down in West Africa in recent years. Although we’re only at the very beginning of the rainy season, when cholera outbreaks generally occur, several countries in the region already report dozens of cholera cases.
Period covered by this Final Report: 16 August 2012 - 30 April 2013
Appeal target (current): CHF 1,061,852
Appeal coverage: 107%
· A Preliminary Emergency Appeal was launched on 16 August 2012 for CHF 1,151,632 for 6 months to assist 1,440,000 beneficiaries.
· CHF 150,000 was allocated from the International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent (IFRC) Disaster Relief Emergency Fund (DREF) as start-up funds.
DAKAR, 25 juillet 2013 (IRIN) - Depuis la mi-juin, environ 1 700 personnes ont contracté le choléra en Afrique de l'Ouest. Ce chiffre représente une baisse significative par rapport à la même période de sept semaines de l'année 2012, au cours de laquelle 11 834 personnes avaient été infectées.
DAKAR, 24 July 2013 (IRIN) - Some 1,700 people in West Africa have contracted cholera since mid-June, showing a significant decline compared to the same seven-week period in 2012 when 11,834 were affected.
Overall, 50,439 people contracted cholera in West and Central Africa in 2012, according to the UN Children's Fund (UNICEF). Sierra Leone and Guinea saw 30,000 people infected and 400 deaths.
Is there a gender difference in the cholera disease burden in Sierra Leone?
FREETOWN, 12 June 2013 (IRIN) - As the fleeting storms of May give way to the persistent downpours of June, the National Cholera Taskforce in Freetown, Sierra Leone, is working to prevent a repeat of last year's cholera outbreak.
Dr. Azharul Islam Khan, chief physician and head of Dhaka Hospital’s Diarrhoeal Diseases Unit, was invited by GOARN (Global Outbreak Alert and Response Network) and the World Health Organization to conduct a post-epidemic evaluation of the 2012 cholera outbreak response in Sierra Leone.
British Army engineers are involved in a pioneering drilling project to bring clean water to thousands of people in Sierra Leone.
As a result of this project, fresh water will be delivered to more than 6,500 people where it is scarce and the threat of illnesses like cholera is high as people are forced to use water in contaminated rivers and puddles for drinking and cleaning.
Period covered by this Ops Update: 15 January 2013 - 3 March 2013.
Appeal target (current): CHF 1,061,852 in cash, kind and services.
Appeal coverage: 100%
• The Preliminary Emergency Appeal was launched on 16 August 2012 for CHF 1,151,632 for six months to assist 1,440,000 beneficiaries.
• To start the operation, CHF 150,000 was allocated from the International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent (IFRC) Disaster Relief Emergency Fund (DREF).
Summary: CHF 178,829 was allocated from the IFRC’s Disaster Relief Emergency Fund (DREF) on 7 September 2012, to support the Red Cross Society of Guinea (RCSG) in delivering assistance to some 25,000 households.
In February 2012, cholera cases began to appear throughout the regions of Conakry and Forecariah. The epidemic worsened in July and August (5,699 cases and 109 deaths as of 2 September 2012) and reached a level that exceeded the response capacities of the National Society.