Afghanistan: Drought - Apr 2018Ongoing
The evolving drought situation exacerbates underlying challenges to food security from conflict and weak labour markets. WFP is preparing for a possible drought response to up to 1 million people. (WFP, 31 Mar 2018)
La Niña has had a devastating effect on this year’s planting season, with a rain, snow and sleet deficit of 70 per cent prevailing across most of the country. With last year’s wheat production already reported to be 57 per cent below the five-year average, the 2018 harvest is forecast to be even lower: down from 4.2 million metric tons to 3.5 million metric tons. (OCHA, 25 Apr 2018)
Forecasts indicate below-average to average precipitation for the remaining weeks of the spring wet season. Along with cumulative precipitation deficits, the below-average forecast is reflective of a low frequency of storms entering the region, increasing the risk for extended periods of dryness that could impact agricultural production. (FEWS NET, 4 May 2018)
Badghis, Balkh, Faryab, Jawzjan, Hilmand, Nimroz, Uruzgan, Kubduz, Takhar, Herat, Ghor and Farah are among the worst affected provinces. The population in these dry spells affected provinces, which are most ikely to need support in the areas of nutrition and food security, water and sanitation, emergency shelter and non-food items... The government launched a USD 100 million appeal in mid-April through MAIL for immediate livestock protection for an initial two months of assistance for fodder/feed support and an overall demand of USD 550 million for a 10 months fodder / feed support throughout the 34 provinces of Afghanistan. (IFRC, 16 May 2018)
In the 20 provinces most affected by the drought, nearly 15 million people rely on farming, livestock or labour opportunities in agriculture. Of these, an estimated 2 million people will become severely food insecure due to the drought. Humanitarian partners are ramping up their response across the country (see map next page), trying to reach 1.4 million of the most vulnerable girls, boys, women and men struck by the drought. Partners urgently need $115 million; the majority of this amount will provide food support to help families through the lean season and to provide them with drinking water for six months. (OCHA, 25 May 2018)
Food security outcomes in the agropastoral areas are worse than is typical during the spring and summer months. Livestock productivity and body conditions are below normal levels in many areas due to very poor rangeland conditions, leading to low income from livestock sales and limited household availability of livestock products. Most rangeland areas have received well below average rainfall amounts, except for localized parts of western, southwestern, and southeastern provinces. (FEWS NET, 31 May 2018)
In Hilmand, 150,000 heads of livestock have died due to the drought, according to authorities, and the water table has significantly dropped in nine districts. At present, there are no reports yet of migration movementsin the Southern Region due to the ongoing drought. The Dasht-e-Hawz site designated for the assistance of drought-migrated families north of Hirat City, Hirat, has proven unsuitable due to remoteness and harsh climatic conditions.Authorities relocated all remaining 2,500 people on the site back to Hirat City. According to provincial authorities, there is no land that they could allocate to the families to build temporary shelter. Around Qala-e-Naw, Badghis, farmers have given up hope for the harvest and started feeding the wheat that could not germinate to cattle. (OCHA, 03 June 2018).
Although several significant precipitation events during late spring helped alleviate dryness across the country, late rainfall was not sufficient to mitigate seasonal dryness in many parts of the country, which is most severe in the northwest but also significant across much of the north, northeast, southwest and central provinces. Field reports confirm that area planted for rainfed wheat is less than that of last year due to dry soil conditions and the use of extended areas for grazing, while a significant proportion of planted rainfed areas may have reduced yields due to dryness. (FEWS NET, 06 June 2018).
The lives of a million people are critically affected by drought in Afghanistan. Another 2 million people could be affected in the coming months. Food insecurity and reduced access to safe water are beginning to take their toll in the 10 worst affected provinces. Currently, more than 20 000 people have already been displaced to the province of Herat in western Afghanistan from neighbouring provinces due to the drought. (WHO, 15 June 2018).
The Humanitarian Response Plan (HRP) has been revised to to include response to the drought and now calls for $547 million. The additional funding will allow humanitarian partners to incorporate assistance to 1.4 million people mostly affected by the drought in the sectors of food security and agriculture, water, sanitation and hygiene and nutrition.(OCHA, 31 May 2018).
Early assessments by local authorities indicate that more than 50,000 people could be affected by the loss of crops and livestock and will be forced to move in the near future. (IFRC, 05 July 2018)
The intense drought between April and September is expected to further aggravate the already poor malnutrition status within the 20 affected provinces, and the impact may extend to December. As a result, an increase in acute malnutrition caseload between July and December 2018 is expected. In addition, the severity of acute malnutrition among children under five may get worse, resulting in cases that are more complicated. As of 19 July, it is reasonable to assume that the increase in magnitude and severity of acute malnutrition and disease will stretch the capacity of health facilities to provide treatment, and that in the medium to long-term, children will face heightened vulnerability to morbidity and mortality. (WHO, 19 Jul 2018).
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Torrential rains trigger flooding in Nigeria
Africa Weather Hazards
- During mid-July, torrential rains in Nigeria triggered floods, damages to infrastructure and fatalities in the Ogun and Katsina states. Heavy rainfall is forecast to continue over northern Nigeria during the next seven days.
Heavy rainfall continues over the Sahel region
Drought in 20 provinces across the country has significantly affected the health and nutrition situation of 4.2 million people. Health Cluster partners are scaling up their response.
The Humanitarian Response Plan (HRP) has been revised due to the drought situation. An additional $117 million has been requested from the HRP.
The deteriorating security situation in some parts of the country has led to the closure of health facilities in many districts and casualties among healthcare workers.
Key Figures (May) 2018)
Annual Target (HRP)
Total People Reached (June 2018)
Total People Reached (Year 2018)
No of Partners Responded
Health Cluster partners are responding to a drought in the northern region. Up to 2,2 million people may be affected by food insecurity.
UNAMA released their latest update on civilian casualties covering the first half of 2018. A total 5,122 casualties (1,692 deaths and 3,430 injured) were reported between 1 January and 30 June, and the figures remain at record high.
Kabul – The World Food Programme (WFP) today welcomed a new contribution of AUD 5 million from the Government of Australia to provide food assistance for people affected by drought in Afghanistan. This brings Australia’s total contribution to WFP’s operations in Afghanistan to AUD15 million in 2018.
Today I announce that the Australian Government will provide humanitarian assistance to support people affected by food shortage throughout Afghanistan.
The United Nations has revised its Humanitarian Response Plan to call for urgent funding to provide emergency food, nutrition and water to over 1.4 million people who will need these supplies over the coming months.
Key issues in the past week:
The collapse of a natural dam in Panjsher flooded several villages destroyed more than 150 houses.
Some 3,400 people are reportedly displaced to Tirinkot City, due to fighting in Dehrawud district.
Members of an armed group force 37 health facilities to close in Zabul Province.
A total of 21,000 people in need received humanitarian assistance across the country.
7,700 New IDPs reported in the past week
PROJECTED FOOD ASSISTANCE NEEDS FOR JANUARY 2019
Context and Rationale
Rainfall continues in the Sahel, no weather hazards reported over Africa
Rainfall continues over the Sahel
The Early Warning Early Action initiative has been developed with the understanding that disaster losses and emergency response costs can be drastically reduced by using early warning analysis to act before a crisis escalates into an emergency.
Early actions strengthen the resilience of at-risk populations, mitigate the impact of disasters and help communities, governments and national and international humanitarian agencies to respond more effectively and efficiently.
José Graziano da Silva, FAO Director-General
The common analysis and guidance note on Afghanistan are the result of a pilot process for the development of country guidance.
This pilot process was completed successfully with the endorsement of the guidance note by the EASO Management Board during its 28th meeting in June 2018. In addition to providing guidance on one of the main countries of origin for applicants for international protection in the EU, this pilot served as a basis for consolidating the methodology for development of country guidance, and as a model for future notes.
Funding required: $25.39 B
Funding received: $8.71 B
Unmet requirements: 16.68 B
People in need: 134.0 M
People to receive aid: 96.2 M
Countries affected: 40
Nearly 380,000 undocumented Afghans return from Iran and Pakistan
Drought conditions in Badghis, Ghor, and Herat affected more than 22,400 people from January to mid-June
USG provides more than $76 million in FY 2018 assistance to respond to acute needs across Afghanistan
Key issues in the past week:
- Conflict and fighting in five provinces displaced 21,000 people, according to first initial reports.
- IOM suspended activities at three border crossings due to lack of funding for two weeks.
- Demonstrations in Faryab and Balkh provinces hampered humanitarian activities.
- A total of 52,000 people in need received humanitarian assistance across the country.
Key figures of the past week:
NGOs call for comprehensive response to Drought in Afghanistan:
4th July 2018, Kabul, Afghanistan
Afghanistan remains one of the worst funded of the large crises around the world. Millions of people are in need of humanitarian assistance, mostly due to conflict, rapid-onset natural disasters and situations of protracted displacement. So far this year only 29% of the Humanitarian Response Plan (HRP) is funded; but on top of the initial response plan, a drought is further escalating needs.
When the rain stopped falling earlier in the year, many people like Ab. Karim from the province of Badghis knew that trouble was coming. In the north western province of Afghanistan, the reduced snowfall and scarce rains meant only one thing – Drought.
Drought and conflict are triggering displacement in Afghanistan. Almost 20,000 people were displaced due to conflict in June, mostly in Nangarhar and Wardak provinces. Over 20,000 people have been forced to migrate due to drought, since the beginning of April. 4,000 were displaced within Badghis province, during the last week of June. The total number of IDPs in 2018 is over 132,000 countrywide.
Key issues in the past week:
- Around 7,000 people were reportedly displaced from insecure districts in Wardak Province.
- A new case of polio has been reported from Hilmand, the ninth case this year in Afghanistan.
- 17 clinics in Badghis have reportedly run out of supplies, due to interference by armed groups.
- A total of 32,000 people in need received humanitarian assistance across the country.
In Badghis Province, ongoing drought has reportedly displaced nearly 4,000 people to the provincial centre Qala-e-Naw. Humanitarian assessments of these latest arrivals have commenced. The additional displacement of between 70 and 100 people due to drought has also been reported within contested areas of Ghorak district, Helmand Province.