Southern Africa: Food Insecurity - 2015-2017
Early warning signs provide alarming indications of looming significant food supply shortages that are likely to impact on the next marketing season. The rains experienced in late March and early April provided some relief to livestock farmers, but arrived too late for both staple foods and cash crops. These adverse weather conditions are likely to reduce crop production in southern Angola, Namibia, Botswana, Zimbabwe, Lesotho, Malawi, Madagascar and South Africa. The negative impact of flooding will also affect food security in Malawi, Madagascar and Mozambique. (OCHA, 29 May 2015)
Nearly 29 million people are currently food insecure in southern Africa region mainly due to the carry-over effects of the past poor harvest season combined with other structural factors. Unless a two-track approach is quickly taken to address the current food insecurity and to establish measures to mitigate against the El Niño effects, the existing food insecurity will deepen and increase in scope with its effects will last till 2017. (Southern African Food and Nutrition Security Working Group, 17 Nov 2015)
The combination of a poor 2014/15 season and an extreme early dry spell during the 2015/16 rainy season to date (November to February) over southern and western Madagascar has resulted in an intense drought...It is now estimated that close to 1.14 million people are food insecure in seven districts of southern Madagascar (80% of the population). About 665 000 people are severely food insecure and in need of urgent emergency food security support until the end of the 2016/17 lean season...On 22 March, the government of Madagascar has declared a state of emergency for southern Madagascar. (ECHO, 30 Mar 2016)
Lesotho last had normal rainfall between April and May 2015... An estimated 15-30 percent of Lesotho’s population is in need of humanitarian assistance to help them cope with this acute drought situation. The Lesotho Vulnerability Assessment Committee (LVAC) report for 2015 indicates deterioration in the food security situation with the number of people in need going from 447,760 to 463,936 (an increase in prevalence from 26% to 33%). (IFRC, 06 Apr 2016)
In Malawi, the prolonged dry spells and floods not only affected maize production but other crops such as ground nuts have also been affected, and harvests are down by 21%. This left more than 2.8 million people in Malawi food insecure for a period of between three to 8 months. 25 out of the 28 Districts in Malawi were affected. Of the 2.8 million people affected 886,204 were living in the hard hit flood-affected districts and 1,947,008 were in districts affected by poor rainfall. An estimated 20% to 40% of Malawi’s population were at that time reported to be in need of humanitarian assistance to help them cope with the acute food shortage. On 12 April 2016, the President of Malawi declared a state of national disaster as a result of prolonged dry spells during 2015/2016 season. (IFRC, 18 Apr 2016)
Mozambique is facing severe drought in the Southern and Central region of the country affecting approximately 1.5 million people. The Government activated the institutional red alert in the most drought affected provinces such as, Tete, Sofala, Gaza, Inhambane and Maputo aiming to intensify and expand the response actions, disburse additional funds planned for emergency situations and mobilize additional resources through the cooperating partners. (OCHA, 04 May 2016)
Based on preliminary results, the ZimVAC has indicated that the prevalence of rural food insecurity in Zimbabwe will be higher than the 30 percent revealed by the January 2016 Rapid Assessment. The global acute malnutrition (GAM) prevalence is likely to increase beyond the 5.7 percent indicated in January. (WFP, 14 Jun 2016)
Between October 2014 and February 2015, Namibia experienced highly erratic rainfall patterns that negatively impacted the planting and cultivation seasons. The recent 2016 assessment done by the office of the Prime Minister and Ministry of Agriculture estimated that 729,134 people were food insecure and 595,839 need immediate assistance due to the drought situation. Prolonged dry spells and extensive flooding characterized the planting season and resulted in delayed planting and destroyed crops. As a result, the 2014/15 crop production yields were 46% below average which put parts of country at high risk of food insecurity. (IFRC, 03 Aug 2016.)
November marks the normal start of the lean season in most of the region, but most countries experienced an earlier than normal start to the lean season this year because of the impact of the El Niño-drought in late 2015 and early 2016. Poor households in the most affected parts of the region including areas in Madagascar, Malawi, Mozambique and Zimbabwe continue facing Crisis (IPC Phase 3) acute food insecurity outcomes with increasing areas likely falling into Emergency (IPC Phase 4) outcomes during the peak period (Jan-Mar 2017) in the absence of adequate humanitarian assistance. (FEWS NET, 23 Dec 2016)
Southern Africa now facing the peak of the El Niño-induced drought food security crisis, which is expected to last at least until the harvest in March/April 2017. Until then, WFP and its partners will maintain expanded operations, aiming to reach more than 13 million vulnerable people with relief, recovery, resilience and development activities ... WFP reached 9.9 million people in December 2016 and 10.6 million in January 2017. As of March 2017, $833 million has been raised for the humanitarian programmes in the RIASCO Action Plan, leaving a gap of $448,000. However, without additional funding, critical humanitarian needs will not be met. (OCHA, 6 Mar 2017)
In support of SADC’s appeal, RIASCO launched its Action Plan on 27 July, which was revised in December 2016. The Action Plan prioritized seven countries: Angola, Lesotho, Madagascar, Malawi, Mozambique, Swaziland and Zimbabwe. The Action Plan was based on three pillars: a humanitarian pillar, setting out immediate needs in the seven priority countries; a resilience pillar undertaken in parallel to humanitarian efforts; and a macro-economic pillar, which sets out policy options for governments to address the long-term impacts. The plan requested $1.3 billion to provide humanitarian assistance (pillar 1) for 13.8 million people up to April 2017, of which $900 million has been received (70 per cent). (OCHA/RIASCO, 17 Jul 2017)
- [Report on the RIASCO Action Plan for the El Niño-induced drought in Southern Africa 2016/2017, 12 Jul 2017]
- SADC: Regional Humanitarian Appeal (Jun 2016)
- FAO Southern Africa El Niño Response Plan (2016/17)
- RIASCO Action Plan for Southern Africa: Response Plan for the El Niño-induced Drought in Southern Africa (May 2016-Apr 2017)
- UNICEF El Niño Eastern & Southern Africa Region Investment Case (23 Jun 2016)
This report is produced by the Office of the Resident Coordinator in Lesotho in collaboration with humanitarian partners. It is issued by the Humanitarian Country Team. It covers the period from 31 May 2017 up to 7 August 2017.
This brief summarizes FEWS NET’s most forward-looking analysis of projected emergency food assistance needs in FEWS NET coverage countries. The projected size of each country’s acutely food insecure population is compared to last year and the recent five-year average. Countries where external emergency food assistance needs are anticipated are identified. Projected lean season months highlighted in red indicate either an early start or an extension to the typical lean season.
• UNICEF provided eight water tanker trucks to the Government of Namibia to support water-stressed communities in seven drought-affected regions. UNICEF also provided 15,000 bednets in support of the malaria outbreak response which has affected more than 11,900 people in the first quarter of 2017.
Near average maize grain prices recorded as harvesting concludes across the country
Results of SMART surveys conducted, in seven livelihood zones, in May 2017 show a slight improvement in nutrition in Malawi, with Global Acute Malnutrition (GAM) prevalence declining from 2.5 per cent in May 2016 to 2.2 per cent in May 2017. Severe Acute Malnutrition (SAM) also declined from 0.5 to 0.3 per cent in the same period.
12,323 people assisted under Health and Nutrition in June.
9,258 refugees assisted in June.
WFP supports the Government of Zimbabwe to develop a Home Grown School Feeding strategy for the country.
Productive Assets Creation programme scaled up from 7 districts in 2016, to 11 in 2017.
Seasonal Livelihood Programming extended to Matobo District, bringing the total number of Districts covered to 13.
2.1 million food insecure people
175,233 (May), 119,979 (June) reached w ith FFA/ GFD
59,430 (May), 98,337 (June) children received school meals
8,715 (May)/25,929 (June) received nutrition support
WFP gradually scales down the El Niño drought response as food security situation improves and enhances its focus on pro-resilience activities.
The Lesotho Vulnerability Assessment Committee (LVAC) conducted the annual vulnerability assessment in June 2017, which shows a Food Insecure Population by Year large improvement in food security, in comparison to the previous years. The LVAC assesses food security, nutrition and WASH needs in the 10 districts of Lesotho. In 2017, for the first time, the LVAC also assessed urban vulnerability.
Due to improved harvests, FEWS NET projects Minimal levels of food insecurity in Southern Africa through January 2018, with pockets of Stressed or Crisis levels in some countries
Relief actors provide targeted assistance to vulnerable populations to facilitate continued recovery
USAID/OFDA provides approximately $26 million in new funding to support cyclone- and drought-affected populations in the region
LES POINTS MARQUANTS
La Banque mondiale soutient les efforts du pays pour accélérer la réforme foncière à travers deux projets soutenant la sécurité alimentaire, la protection sociale, la croissance agricole, et la sécurisation foncière.
Le gouvernement malgache prévoit la sécurisation de 500 000 parcelles auprès de 180 communes.
La commune rurale d’Andriambilany pilote une réforme foncière. Après avoir identifié 17 000 parcelles non titrées, la commune a délivré 2 800 certificats fonciers en l’espace de deux mois.
The World Bank is supporting Madagascar’s efforts to accelerate land reform through two projects promoting food security, social protection, agricultural growth, and secure land tenure.
The Government of Madagascar is planning to regularize land tenure for 500,000 parcels of land in 180 communes.
The rural commune of Andriambilany is piloting land tenure reform. Having identified 17,000 parcels of land without a title, the commune issued 2,800 land certificates within a two-month period.
UNICEF and partners have provided lifesaving treatment for severe acute malnutrition (SAM) to 250 children aged 0-59 months and 5,088 children aged 6-59 months during the period January to June 2017.
A total of 54,252 caregivers have been reached with key messages on Infant and Young Child Feeding (IYCF)
219,859 children 6-59 months have been provided with Vitamin A Supplementation (VAS).
8 August has been confirmed as the starting date of the relocation exercise to transfer refugees from Mussungue reception centre to the Lóvua site.
The rate of new refugee arrivals to Angola remains low with an average of 1 to 5 per day.
Malaria infection rates decreased in Cacanda reception centre with morbidity of 28 per cent (decrease from 47 per cent in the past week).
Final results of UNICEF-led nutrition SMART surveys in the Grand Sud show Global Acute Malnutrition (GAM) prevalence classified as “high” (>10%) in three districts according to WHO standards. The most recent Integrated Phase Classification for Acute Malnutrition exercise (IPC AM, July 2017) classified these same districts in “serious” acute malnutrition phase 3.
This bulletin examines trends in staple food and fuel prices, the cost of the basic food basket and consumer price indices for 69 countries in the second quarter of 2017 (April to June). The maps on pages 6–7 provide impact analysis dis-aggregated to sub-national level.
Food prices remain stable
Households in the south are under more stress than those in the north
The use of some food-related negative coping strategies has fallen in rural areas
Fewer poorer households are using negative coping strategies
Lourens Swanepoel, Associate lecturer, University of Venda
Steven Belmain Professor of Ecology, University of Greenwich