Southern Africa: Food Insecurity - 2015-2017
Early warning signs provide alarming indications of looming significant food supply shortages that are likely to impact on the next marketing season. The rains experienced in late March and early April provided some relief to livestock farmers, but arrived too late for both staple foods and cash crops. These adverse weather conditions are likely to reduce crop production in southern Angola, Namibia, Botswana, Zimbabwe, Lesotho, Malawi, Madagascar and South Africa. The negative impact of flooding will also affect food security in Malawi, Madagascar and Mozambique. (OCHA, 29 May 2015)
Nearly 29 million people are currently food insecure in southern Africa region mainly due to the carry-over effects of the past poor harvest season combined with other structural factors. Unless a two-track approach is quickly taken to address the current food insecurity and to establish measures to mitigate against the El Niño effects, the existing food insecurity will deepen and increase in scope with its effects will last till 2017. (Southern African Food and Nutrition Security Working Group, 17 Nov 2015)
The combination of a poor 2014/15 season and an extreme early dry spell during the 2015/16 rainy season to date (November to February) over southern and western Madagascar has resulted in an intense drought...It is now estimated that close to 1.14 million people are food insecure in seven districts of southern Madagascar (80% of the population). About 665 000 people are severely food insecure and in need of urgent emergency food security support until the end of the 2016/17 lean season...On 22 March, the government of Madagascar has declared a state of emergency for southern Madagascar. (ECHO, 30 Mar 2016)
Lesotho last had normal rainfall between April and May 2015... An estimated 15-30 percent of Lesotho’s population is in need of humanitarian assistance to help them cope with this acute drought situation. The Lesotho Vulnerability Assessment Committee (LVAC) report for 2015 indicates deterioration in the food security situation with the number of people in need going from 447,760 to 463,936 (an increase in prevalence from 26% to 33%). (IFRC, 06 Apr 2016)
In Malawi, the prolonged dry spells and floods not only affected maize production but other crops such as ground nuts have also been affected, and harvests are down by 21%. This left more than 2.8 million people in Malawi food insecure for a period of between three to 8 months. 25 out of the 28 Districts in Malawi were affected. Of the 2.8 million people affected 886,204 were living in the hard hit flood-affected districts and 1,947,008 were in districts affected by poor rainfall. An estimated 20% to 40% of Malawi’s population were at that time reported to be in need of humanitarian assistance to help them cope with the acute food shortage. On 12 April 2016, the President of Malawi declared a state of national disaster as a result of prolonged dry spells during 2015/2016 season. (IFRC, 18 Apr 2016)
Mozambique is facing severe drought in the Southern and Central region of the country affecting approximately 1.5 million people. The Government activated the institutional red alert in the most drought affected provinces such as, Tete, Sofala, Gaza, Inhambane and Maputo aiming to intensify and expand the response actions, disburse additional funds planned for emergency situations and mobilize additional resources through the cooperating partners. (OCHA, 04 May 2016)
Based on preliminary results, the ZimVAC has indicated that the prevalence of rural food insecurity in Zimbabwe will be higher than the 30 percent revealed by the January 2016 Rapid Assessment. The global acute malnutrition (GAM) prevalence is likely to increase beyond the 5.7 percent indicated in January. (WFP, 14 Jun 2016)
Between October 2014 and February 2015, Namibia experienced highly erratic rainfall patterns that negatively impacted the planting and cultivation seasons. The recent 2016 assessment done by the office of the Prime Minister and Ministry of Agriculture estimated that 729,134 people were food insecure and 595,839 need immediate assistance due to the drought situation. Prolonged dry spells and extensive flooding characterized the planting season and resulted in delayed planting and destroyed crops. As a result, the 2014/15 crop production yields were 46% below average which put parts of country at high risk of food insecurity. (IFRC, 03 Aug 2016.)
November marks the normal start of the lean season in most of the region, but most countries experienced an earlier than normal start to the lean season this year because of the impact of the El Niño-drought in late 2015 and early 2016. Poor households in the most affected parts of the region including areas in Madagascar, Malawi, Mozambique and Zimbabwe continue facing Crisis (IPC Phase 3) acute food insecurity outcomes with increasing areas likely falling into Emergency (IPC Phase 4) outcomes during the peak period (Jan-Mar 2017) in the absence of adequate humanitarian assistance. (FEWS NET, 23 Dec 2016)
Southern Africa now facing the peak of the El Niño-induced drought food security crisis, which is expected to last at least until the harvest in March/April 2017. Until then, WFP and its partners will maintain expanded operations, aiming to reach more than 13 million vulnerable people with relief, recovery, resilience and development activities ... WFP reached 9.9 million people in December 2016 and 10.6 million in January 2017. As of March 2017, $833 million has been raised for the humanitarian programmes in the RIASCO Action Plan, leaving a gap of $448,000. However, without additional funding, critical humanitarian needs will not be met. (OCHA, 6 Mar 2017)
In support of SADC’s appeal, RIASCO launched its Action Plan on 27 July, which was revised in December 2016. The Action Plan prioritized seven countries: Angola, Lesotho, Madagascar, Malawi, Mozambique, Swaziland and Zimbabwe. The Action Plan was based on three pillars: a humanitarian pillar, setting out immediate needs in the seven priority countries; a resilience pillar undertaken in parallel to humanitarian efforts; and a macro-economic pillar, which sets out policy options for governments to address the long-term impacts. The plan requested $1.3 billion to provide humanitarian assistance (pillar 1) for 13.8 million people up to April 2017, of which $900 million has been received (70 per cent). (OCHA/RIASCO, 17 Jul 2017)
- [Report on the RIASCO Action Plan for the El Niño-induced drought in Southern Africa 2016/2017, 12 Jul 2017]
- SADC: Regional Humanitarian Appeal (Jun 2016)
- FAO Southern Africa El Niño Response Plan (2016/17)
- RIASCO Action Plan for Southern Africa: Response Plan for the El Niño-induced Drought in Southern Africa (May 2016-Apr 2017)
- UNICEF El Niño Eastern & Southern Africa Region Investment Case (23 Jun 2016)
DEVELOPMENT PROCESS AND BACKGROUND CONTEXT
In just the last 36 years, Malawi has experienced eight major droughts, affecting more than 24 million people1. The impact, frequency, and spread of drought in Malawi have intensified in the past four decades and are likely to worsen with climate change, compounded by other factors, such as population growth and environmental degradation.
CERF enables fast, flexible and needs-based support for people affected by humanitarian emergencies. The UN General Assembly established the fund in 2005 to provide timely assistance in crises. Since its operational launch in 2006, CERF has developed a reputation for its ability to kick-start humanitarian action, scale up the response to emergencies and serve as a lifeline for people struggling to survive in the world’s most underfunded crises.
FOOD SECURITY SNAPSHOT
Cereal production recovers strongly in 2017 to above-average level, mostly reflecting improved weather conditions
Maize meal prices decline to lower year-on-year levels, mainly reflecting reduced import costs and improved supply situation
Food security conditions improve in 2017/18
Cereal production recovers in 2017
By Ahmed Khan
It is mid-morning in Katana Village, Ward 2, Mudzi District, Mashonaland East Province in Zimbabwe. There is a slight breeze on this otherwise warm winter day. Nyaradzai Masimba aged 21, a mother of two children Pretty Bhurashu a girl aged 1yr 9 months and Brendon Bhurashu a boy aged 4 months old prepares traditional food for her family. This household is fortunate on this day. The children are healthy; the baby is feeding well; and the young mother has a smile on her face.
By Charles Mkoka
LILONGWE, Sep 27 2017 (IPS) - Lydia Katengeza, a community vaccinator with the Nathenje Community Vaccination Association (NCVA), wakes up as early as 5 a.m., ready with her I-2 vaccine vial in a storage container in her hand. She moves from one house to another, visiting each poultry farmer. All of them are alerted a day in advance so that they don’t release their free-range chickens in the morning.
The Integrated food security Phase Classification (IPC) analysis shows that 837,000 people are in IPC phase 3 or 4 and will not be able to meet their food requirements from December 2017 to March 2018. The Humanitarian Response Committee is yet to be convened to map out the response
WFP continues to work with Government on the finalisation of the Malawi National Social Support Policy framework. The Framework’s designs have a strong focus on resilience and effective social protection systems.
WFP is shifting the focus of its operations towards resilience strengthening. 14 priority communes have been identified for Food Assistance for Assets resilience strengthening activities.
Early recovery activities implemented in the targeted ENAWO cyclone affected areas aiming to support communities for restoring damaged infrastructure ended in August.
36,500 people in Leribe, Berea, Maseru, Mafeteng and Mohale’s Hoek received food support from USAID/PEPFAR under the categories of Prevention of Mother to Child Transmission of HIV, people receiving antiretroviral therapy or treatment for tuberculosis and orphans and vulnerable children.
11,166 children aged 6-23 months in Mokhotlong,
Thaba-Tseka, and Mohale’s Hoek received super cereal plus under the Blanket Supplementary Feeding Programme.
In August 2017, WFP assisted 8,088 people through the Food by Prescription programme.
Due to funding shortfalls, a pipeline break is expected in September 2017 for WFP’s Food by Prescription programme.
Assistance to Orphaned and Vulnerable Children (OVC) resumed in August 2017, reaching 28,000 beneficiaries by the end of the month.
The 2017 Vulnerability Analysis Assessment has recently been completed, with results showing that many are still recovering from the 2016/2017 drought.
On 22 September 2017, H. E. Dr. Sun Xianghua, the Ambassador of P. R. China to Lesotho attended the agricultural donation ceremony by the China-Lesotho People to People Friendship Action Fund (CLPPFA) to the vulnerable farmers in Maseru. Hon. Keketso Sello, Minister of Mining, Hon. Lehlohonolo Moramotse, Minister of Public Works and Transport, Hon. Chalane Phori, Minister of Small Business, Cooperatives and Marketing, Hon. Thabo Sofonia, MP of Thaba Bosiu Constituency, Mr.
A. Situation analysis
Description of the disaster
Normal food consumption to continue into the lean period in most parts of the country
Stable acute food insecurity outcomes continue in most parts of the region
El informe de la FAO indica un repunte de las cosechas en la mayoría de los países de bajos ingresos con déficit de alimentos
Le rapport de la FAO souligne la hausse des récoltes dans les pays aux plus faibles revenus et plus importants déficits vivriers
Conflicts drag down food security amid growing global food output
FAO report notes rebounding harvests in most low-income food-deficit countries
21 September 2017, Rome-- Robust harvests in Latin America and rebounding agricultural conditions in Southern Africa are on course to improve the global food supply situation, but ongoing civil conflicts and climate-related shocks are affecting progress towards hunger reduction, according to the new edition of FAO's Crop Prospects and Food Situation report.
The Global Hunger Index (GHI) is designed to comprehensively measure and track hunger globally and by country and region. Calculated each year by the International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI), the GHI highlights successes and failures in hunger reduction and provides insights into the drivers of hunger. By raising awareness and understanding of regional and country differences in hunger, the GHI aims to trigger actions to reduce hunger.
1. EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
Violence and conflict during political activities is widespread and they have a disproportionate impact on persons with disabilities (PWDs) in a multitude of ways. Through a number of factors, conflict situations also contribute to extreme mental, emotional, and physical harm to individuals with disabilities (acquired through conflict or otherwise), their families and the community at large. These harms and their after-effects can last for year’s even decades, causing further stress between and within communities.
20 September 2017, Harare - The United Nations Team in Zimbabwe, in support of national development priorities and in partnership with development partners, reiterates its commitments articulated under the 2016-2020 Zimbabwe United Nations Development Assistance Framework (ZUNDAF).
The United Nations, through the ZUNDAF, continues its support in poverty reduction, advancing good governance and gender equality, and enhancing service delivery in education, health, water and sanitation, protection, and food and nutrition security.