Southern Africa: Food Insecurity - 2015-2017
Early warning signs provide alarming indications of looming significant food supply shortages that are likely to impact on the next marketing season. The rains experienced in late March and early April provided some relief to livestock farmers, but arrived too late for both staple foods and cash crops. These adverse weather conditions are likely to reduce crop production in southern Angola, Namibia, Botswana, Zimbabwe, Lesotho, Malawi, Madagascar and South Africa. The negative impact of flooding will also affect food security in Malawi, Madagascar and Mozambique. (OCHA, 29 May 2015)
Nearly 29 million people are currently food insecure in southern Africa region mainly due to the carry-over effects of the past poor harvest season combined with other structural factors. Unless a two-track approach is quickly taken to address the current food insecurity and to establish measures to mitigate against the El Niño effects, the existing food insecurity will deepen and increase in scope with its effects will last till 2017. (Southern African Food and Nutrition Security Working Group, 17 Nov 2015)
The combination of a poor 2014/15 season and an extreme early dry spell during the 2015/16 rainy season to date (November to February) over southern and western Madagascar has resulted in an intense drought...It is now estimated that close to 1.14 million people are food insecure in seven districts of southern Madagascar (80% of the population). About 665 000 people are severely food insecure and in need of urgent emergency food security support until the end of the 2016/17 lean season...On 22 March, the government of Madagascar has declared a state of emergency for southern Madagascar. (ECHO, 30 Mar 2016)
Lesotho last had normal rainfall between April and May 2015... An estimated 15-30 percent of Lesotho’s population is in need of humanitarian assistance to help them cope with this acute drought situation. The Lesotho Vulnerability Assessment Committee (LVAC) report for 2015 indicates deterioration in the food security situation with the number of people in need going from 447,760 to 463,936 (an increase in prevalence from 26% to 33%). (IFRC, 06 Apr 2016)
In Malawi, the prolonged dry spells and floods not only affected maize production but other crops such as ground nuts have also been affected, and harvests are down by 21%. This left more than 2.8 million people in Malawi food insecure for a period of between three to 8 months. 25 out of the 28 Districts in Malawi were affected. Of the 2.8 million people affected 886,204 were living in the hard hit flood-affected districts and 1,947,008 were in districts affected by poor rainfall. An estimated 20% to 40% of Malawi’s population were at that time reported to be in need of humanitarian assistance to help them cope with the acute food shortage. On 12 April 2016, the President of Malawi declared a state of national disaster as a result of prolonged dry spells during 2015/2016 season. (IFRC, 18 Apr 2016)
Mozambique is facing severe drought in the Southern and Central region of the country affecting approximately 1.5 million people. The Government activated the institutional red alert in the most drought affected provinces such as, Tete, Sofala, Gaza, Inhambane and Maputo aiming to intensify and expand the response actions, disburse additional funds planned for emergency situations and mobilize additional resources through the cooperating partners. (OCHA, 04 May 2016)
Based on preliminary results, the ZimVAC has indicated that the prevalence of rural food insecurity in Zimbabwe will be higher than the 30 percent revealed by the January 2016 Rapid Assessment. The global acute malnutrition (GAM) prevalence is likely to increase beyond the 5.7 percent indicated in January. (WFP, 14 Jun 2016)
Between October 2014 and February 2015, Namibia experienced highly erratic rainfall patterns that negatively impacted the planting and cultivation seasons. The recent 2016 assessment done by the office of the Prime Minister and Ministry of Agriculture estimated that 729,134 people were food insecure and 595,839 need immediate assistance due to the drought situation. Prolonged dry spells and extensive flooding characterized the planting season and resulted in delayed planting and destroyed crops. As a result, the 2014/15 crop production yields were 46% below average which put parts of country at high risk of food insecurity. (IFRC, 03 Aug 2016.)
November marks the normal start of the lean season in most of the region, but most countries experienced an earlier than normal start to the lean season this year because of the impact of the El Niño-drought in late 2015 and early 2016. Poor households in the most affected parts of the region including areas in Madagascar, Malawi, Mozambique and Zimbabwe continue facing Crisis (IPC Phase 3) acute food insecurity outcomes with increasing areas likely falling into Emergency (IPC Phase 4) outcomes during the peak period (Jan-Mar 2017) in the absence of adequate humanitarian assistance. (FEWS NET, 23 Dec 2016)
Southern Africa now facing the peak of the El Niño-induced drought food security crisis, which is expected to last at least until the harvest in March/April 2017. Until then, WFP and its partners will maintain expanded operations, aiming to reach more than 13 million vulnerable people with relief, recovery, resilience and development activities ... WFP reached 9.9 million people in December 2016 and 10.6 million in January 2017. As of March 2017, $833 million has been raised for the humanitarian programmes in the RIASCO Action Plan, leaving a gap of $448,000. However, without additional funding, critical humanitarian needs will not be met. (OCHA, 6 Mar 2017)
In support of SADC’s appeal, RIASCO launched its Action Plan on 27 July, which was revised in December 2016. The Action Plan prioritized seven countries: Angola, Lesotho, Madagascar, Malawi, Mozambique, Swaziland and Zimbabwe. The Action Plan was based on three pillars: a humanitarian pillar, setting out immediate needs in the seven priority countries; a resilience pillar undertaken in parallel to humanitarian efforts; and a macro-economic pillar, which sets out policy options for governments to address the long-term impacts. The plan requested $1.3 billion to provide humanitarian assistance (pillar 1) for 13.8 million people up to April 2017, of which $900 million has been received (70 per cent). (OCHA/RIASCO, 17 Jul 2017)
Appeals & Response Plans
64 mt of food assistance distributed
US$1.13 m six months (Jun-Nov 2018) net funding requirements, representing 47% of total
35,548 people assisted in May 2018
32.79 mt of food assistance distributed
US$138,567 cash based transfers assistance
US$ 24.7 m six months (July - December 2018) net funding requirements, representing 53% of total
13,923 people assisted in May 2018
Overall, across southern Africa, regional food staple prices continued to remain below their respective 2017 levels and 5 year averages (5YA). In Malawi, South Africa, Tanzania, and Zambia, maize prices were 20—27 percent below the 5YA.
As harvesting is underway, maize prices across the region are expected to follow a downward trend as households begin consuming from their own production. However, given that many countries are reporting lower production estimates compared to last year, this trend may be short-lived.
In Malawi, the impact of extreme weather events has significantly contributed to the recurrent crises of food insecurity. This analytical work was undertaken to assist the Government of Malawi to strengthen its efforts toward effectively responding to extreme weather-related events, especially El Niño and La Niña phenomena.
Contribute to the protection of livestock livelihood assets and increase the resilience of livestock dependent livelihoods to disasters.
19 892 households.
Oxfam GB’s Global Performance Framework is part of the organization’s effort to better understand and communicate its effectiveness, as well as to enhance learning for staff and partners. Under this Framework, a small number of completed or mature projects are selected at random each year for an evaluation of their impact, in an exercise known as an ‘Effectiveness Review’. One key focus is the extent to which the projects have promoted change in relation to relevant Oxfam GB global outcome indicators.
THE ZERO HUNGER CHALLENGE (ZHC) is an international call for action made by the United Nations (UN) towards a vision of a world without hunger. It is fully aligned to the 2030 Agenda and reflects the five elements from within the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). The zero hunger challenge is also aligned to the Africa Union Commission’s Agenda 2063 on ‘The Africa we Want’.
The report has been prepared as commissioned by the Government of Madagascar (Ministry of Population, Social protection and Women’s Promotion and the National Office of Risk and Disaster Management) in coordination with the members of the emergency cash group and with UNICEF’s funding and technical support. The results of this report have been presented and discussed with the Government and the members of the emergency cash group.
May 11, 2018 11:02 AM
CAPE TOWN, SOUTH AFRICA — While the South African city of Cape Town drew international attention when it warned it could run out of water this year, an international charity focused on global water supplies says "slow burning" droughts have wreaked even worse devastation in other parts of Africa.
Jonathan Farr leads work on water security for Water Aid, an organization that works to bring clean water to some of the world's poorest communities, including in southern Africa.
Across southern Africa, regional food staple prices were below both their respective 2017 levels and 5 year averages (5YA). In Malawi, Mozambique, South Africa, and Tanzania, maize prices were 25 - 36 percent below the 5YA. Prices are expected to decrease in coming weeks as harvesting gets underway. The sole exception to such trends is the DRC, where the average national price of cassava flour has remained above the 5YA since September 2017, and showed an increase from January to February 2018.
Overview of the Project and Organization of the Final Report
Koko, Macomia District, Cabo Delgado, March 13 2018 - Following the most severe drought in 30 years caused by the 2016/2017 El Niño phenomenon - which in Mozambique affected approximately 2.3 million people - in 2017 the DFID Fund for the Lean Season Nutrition Response and Resilience Building in Mozambique, in partnership with WPF and UNICEF, decided to support the Government in addressing the immediate needs of the affected population in four provinces (Cabo Delgado,Manica, Tete and Zambezia).
A. SITUATION ANALYSIS
Description of the disaster
Message from the Country Representative
2017 was unprecedented for WFP as we wrapped up the largest emergency response in Malawi’s history. At the same time, we reaffirmed our commitment to work with the Government and partners to eliminate hunger and malnutrition in our lifetimes .
With conviction and dedication, we are pursuing the difficult but necessary work of helping families build their capacity to resist future shocks. We are designing our action differently and converting humanitarian assistance into development opportunities .
The R4 Rural Resilience Initiative (R4) is a strategic partnership between Oxfam America (OA) and the United Nations World Food Programme (WFP). R4 was initiated in 2011 to respond to the challenges faced by food insecure communities enduring increasingly frequent and intense climate disasters and other shocks.
By Osman Mohamed Osman, IFRC
Thomas Kafas Shumba smiles as he inspects his only surviving portion of maize crop plantations, adjacent to his mud-walled house—in Wanasi village, Zimbabwe.
Clad in a printed grey shirt and a pair of black trousers, the father of five moves around his tiny farm, showing a team from Zimbabwe Red Cross how conservation farming, a new technique, saved some of his crops, despite poor rains a month ago.
Over one-third of country’s children suffer from chronic malnutrition
“I am no longer embarrassed with my child’s frail body. She has gained weight and is able to play and eat just like any other child.”
March 2018 — Bertha January, a single mother, often struggled to provide her 13-month-old daughter, Zipora, with enough nutritious food to keep her healthy. Over time, Zipora became extremely underweight and lethargic, almost reaching a point where she was not strong enough to eat.
FAO promotes the use and scale up of Cash+ as a tool for emergency response, strengthening resilience and reducing rural poverty. The Cash+ model supports the enhancement of vibrant and diversified livelihoods, providing an important safety net against shocks and stresses for poor and vulnerable rural households. As such, the model has great transformative potential.
Extended dryness and high temperatures are likely to reduce 2018 harvests