Somalia: Drought - 2015-2017Ongoing
The 2015-2016 El Niño phenomenon had a severe impact on vulnerable people in Somalia - it worsened an already widespread drought in Puntland and Somaliland with a devastating impact on communities and their livelihoods, increasing food insecurity, cash shortages and resulting in out-migration and death of livestock. Those affects are now emerging in other areas of the country, specifically in Jubaland in the south. Somaliland and Puntland have experienced below average rains for up to four seasons, spanning two years, and affecting nearly 1.4 million people. (OCHA, 28 Nov 2016)
The humanitarian situation in Somalia is rapidly deteriorating and famine is a strong possibility in 2017. This comes only six years after a devastating famine led to the death of more than a quarter of a million people – half of them children. The severe drought is a result of two consecutive seasons of poor rainfall, more in some areas. In the worst affected areas, large-scale crop failure and high levels of livestock deaths are occurring. Malnutrition and drought-related diseases are on the rise, so are displacements, including to Ethiopia. Increasing competition for resources such as water is already increasing local tensions and could trigger further inter-communal conflict. Over 6.2 million people-half the population-are in need of humanitarian assistance. The situation of children of Somalia is particularly grave. (OCHA, 17 Feb 2017)
As of 31 May 2017, there had been an estimated 739,000 drought displacements since November 2016...More than 480,000 of the displaced, or 65 per cent, are under the age of 18. Moreover, people under 5 years old represent more than one-quarter (195,000) of all those displaced — and are the most at risk of malnutrition and disease. (UNHCR, 31 May 2017)
3.2 million people are severely food insecure. This situation is expected to persist throughout 2017 given the high likelihood of a third consecutive poor harvest in July. Access to food is relatively better than previously projected due to large-scale humanitarian assistance...102,263 people have been treated for Severe Acute Malnutrition (SAM) since January. SAM admissions have increased by more than 50% since 2016. The Food Security and Nutrition Analysis Unit (FSNAU)’s post-Jilaal 2017 survey indicates a high prevalence of Global Acute Malnutrition (15% to 30%) in the Bay, Bakool, Sool, Sanaag, Bari and Nugal regions, as well as in Baidoa and Mogadishu IDP camps. (OCHA, 16 Jun 2017)
While the latest FSNAU assessments show a decrease of the number of people in need of humanitarian assistance from 6.7 million to 6.2 million people, the threat of localized famine countered by scaled-up humanitarian response is as relevant today as it was in the first months of this crisis. The Gu harvest will provide temporary relief for some communities in terms of food availability, but the harvest is reduced due to poor rains and access to food remains constrained. Prices will remain elevated through at least early 2018. Malnutrition, one of the leading indicators of the crisis, has reached emergency levels in a number of locations in southern and central Somalia, primarily, though not exclusively among displaced populations. Overall, some 388,000 acutely malnourished children are in need of critical nutrition support, including life-saving treatment for more than 87,000 severely malnourished children. Nearly 895,000 internally displaced people due to drought and conflict rely almost exclusively on assistance for basic services and life support. Major AWD/Cholera and measles outbreaks are also of continued concern. Through robust humanitarian assistance and the modest benefits from the underperforming Gu rains, the situation has stabilized but remains of serious concern at emergency levels. Whereas there is a modest decline in the number of people in need, there is an increase in the number of persons in the emergency-phase (IPC 4) compared to the previous assessment. When the threat of famine was announced in February, the number of people in need stood at 6.2 million. (OCHA, 31 Aug 2017)
Appeals & Funding
- FAO Somalia Famine Prevention and Drought Response Plan January – December 2017, Update June 2017
- IOM East and Horn of Africa Drought Appeal April - December 2017
- Somalia Situation 2017 Supplementary Appeal January - December 2017
- Operational Plan for famine prevention (Jan-Jun 2017)
Natural disasters over the first semester of 2017
During the first semester of 2017, EM-DAT preliminary data shows that 149 disasters occurred in 73 countries. The impact of which resulted in 3,162 deaths, affected more than 80 million people and caused more than US$32.4 billion (A).
The major disasters were floods and landslides occurring in Asia, South America and Africa (B).
22.9 Million people affected by drought in the region
15 Million people are facing Crisis and Emergency Food Insecurity
15 million people won’t have access to safe drinking water in 2017
84,575 cases of Acute Watery Diarrhoea (AWD)/Cholera have been reported in 2017 – with 1,546 associated deaths
1.8 million people in Kenya, Somalia and Ethiopia have been displaced by drought conditions
$1.6 Billion Oxfam Horn of Africa Drought Response funding gap
International prices of wheat dipped in August, after increasing in the past few months, following an upturn in production prospects in the Black Sea region which improved the 2017 global supply outlook.
Maize quotations also fell on improved weather conditions and abundant global supplies. International prices of rice were relatively stable, although price movements were mixed across the different rice market segments.
Meet Muriya, Traditional Birth Attendant and Breastfeeding Advocate
Right now, parts of Somalia are experiencing what experts have classified as a “near famine.” A widespread, severe hunger emergency, caused by consecutive seasons of severe drought and ongoing conflict, has taken hold. Today, 3 million people—one quarter of Somalia’s population—are experiencing acute food shortages at crisis or emergency levels, and 363,000 children are suffering from malnutrition.
IN THIS ISSUE
Page 1 Rebuilding lives of Somali refugees returning from Kenya
Page 2 Assistance to Somali refugee returnees from Kenya to Somalia
Page 3 Voluntary repatriation in first part of the year
Page 4 The enhanced return package improved the living conditions of returnees
Page 4 Returnees continue their education in Somalia
Rebuilding lives of Somali refugees returning from Kenya
Humanitarian situation remains to be fragile; severe food consumption gaps, ongoing conflict, insecurity and loss of livelihood remain the main contributing factors.
Internal displacement continues to be a key driver of humanitarian and protection needs. Newly-displaced people faced heightened protection risks.
Until the beginning of the Deyr rain (October), severe drought is expected to deepen that may increase vulnerability of the persons of concern.
Extreme levels of food insecurity persist across South Sudan as conflict continues to limit access to typical food sources and, in some areas, the delivery of humanitarian assistance. Emergency (IPC Phase 4) or Crisis (IPC Phase 3) outcomes exist in all states, despite the start of the harvest. Some households on isolated islands along the White Nile in Leer of Unity and Ayod of Jonglei could be in Catastrophe (IPC Phase 5) in the event they are unable to move in search of assistance.
By Baher Kamal
ROME, Sep 11 2017 (IPS) - When officials and experts from all over the world started the first-ever environmental summit hosted by China, they were already aware that climate and weather-related disasters were already seriously beginning to set the international agenda – unprecedented floods in South Asia, strongest ever hurricanes Harvey and Irma, and catastrophic droughts striking the Horn of Africa, among the most impacting recent events.
• Migration to urban areas/town has increased in Adado district. This is attributed to the drought and conflict that has led to displacement of nearly 70% of the the pastoral communities from their origin villages. Some pastoral communities migrated with their animals in search of water and pasture.
• Conflict in Herale town has displaced approximately 6,000 people. The town remains deserted even after clan elders encouraged people to return. Many have settled in Adado town IDP camps.
10.2 million children are at risk of of malnutrition, water shortages, lack of health services, child protection violations and disruption to their education
8.3 million children are in need of water
770,000 children under-five are at risk of death and irreversible damage without access to critical nutrition
At least 3.5 million children are at risk of dropping out of school
UNITED NATIONS, Sep 8 2017 (IPS) - In February, when the government of Somalia sounded an alarm to the UN about risks of a famine in the country, the UN’s Office of Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (OCHA), besides quickly shuffling a response team, was acting from a steep sense of history. The Office, instead of sending out massive aid packages, distributed cash vouchers to families who could spend it to buy goods according to their needs.
Famine: Lessons Learned was produced as the world was responding to four potential famines simultaneously – in Nigeria, South Sudan, Yemen and Somalia.
Much has been written and researched on famine, and many lessons on how to best prevent and respond to famine have been learned the hard way. This paper therefore draws on lessons learned from the last 30-plus years of famine crises and response, going back to famines in Ethiopia and Sudan in the 1980s, up to the most recent famine in Somalia in 2011.
Mogadishu - The Federal Minister for Humanitarian Affairs and Disaster Management Maryam Qasim urged international humanitarian agencies in Somalia to collaborate more closely with local aid organizations to deliver assistance to the intended recipients during a meeting held in Mogadishu yesterday.
The conference brought together local and international organizations engaged in delivering humanitarian aid to drought victims. Minister Qasim said the federal government was working to institutionalize national disaster management to promote effective disaster preparedness.
The Government of Somalia is ramping up their efforts to increase urban resilience with the aim of reducing instability.
Local governments across the country are spearheading inclusive urban development with the help of the World Bank.
Preparations are underway for a larger scale, World Bank supported infrastructure project
- Due to the lingering effects of the 2015-2016 El Niño-induced drought and poor October-to-December 2016 and March-to-June 2017 rainy seasons, an estimated 8.5 million people in Ethiopia require relief food assistance, according to the UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (OCHA). This is in addition to 8 million chronically food-insecure people who receive food or cash assistance through the Government of Ethiopia (GoE)-led Productive Safety Net Program (PSNP).
The threat of famine persists in Somalia following several consecutive failed rainy seasons. According to the FAO-managed FSNAU post-Gu assessment issued on 31 August, an estimated 6.2 million people are in need of humanitarian assistance. Thanks to generous contributions of more than US$1 billion for humanitarian action since the beginning of the year, operational agencies are reaching over 3 million people per month and famine has been averted so far.
While students around the world go back to school, millions of children that fled conflict and drought in East Africa have no classes to attend.
“We decided to flee Burundi because there was war. I miss the school where I was studying in Burundi. I had enough materials: shoes and clothes, pens, eraser and a school bag,” says ten-year-old Nyongere at Nduta refugee camp in Tanzania. But this year he has no school to attend.