Ethiopia: Drought - 2015-2019Ongoing
While Ethiopia battles residual needs from the 2015/2016 El Niño-induced drought, below average 2016 autumn rains in the southern and southeastern parts of the country have led to a new drought in lowland pastoralist areas, as well as in pocket areas across the country. As a result, some 5.6 million people in Ethiopia require emergency food assistance in 2017. In addition, 2.7 million children and pregnant and lactating mothers require supplementary feeding, 9.2 million people need support to access safe drinking water, 1.9 million households need livestock support, and 300,000 children between 6-59 months old are targeted for the treatment for severe acute malnutrition in 2017. Drought conditions are expected to peak during the dry December to March jilaal season, which is likely to lead to a sharper deterioration in livestock body conditions, and impacting milk production and nutrition status of the families that depend on livestock for their food and income. During the dry season, the response will be complemented by supplementary food based on regular screenings to ensure the most vulnerable are reached. (OCHA, 17 Feb 2017)
Southern and eastern Ethiopia continue to battle the impact of the Indian Ocean Dipole-induced drought, exacerbated by disease outbreaks, large scale loss of livelihood assets and displacement. The humanitarian situation countrywide has been further compounded by below average spring rains – the third consecutive poor/failed rains in the southern drought belt. [...] In the second half of 2017, some 8.5 million people will require emergency food assistance, some 3.6 million children and pregnant and lactating mothers will require supplementary feeding, some 10.5 million people will not have regular access to safe drinking water and some 2.25 million households will require livestock support. Partners also estimate that 376,000 children will become severely acutely malnourished until the end of 2017. (Gov't of Ethiopia, OCHA, 08 Aug 2017)
Since the revision of the Humanitarian Requirements Document (HRD) in August 2017, the humanitarian context in Ethiopia has continued to evolve which has led the Government and humanitarian partners to further adjust the HRD requirements. In the food sector the needs have been revised slightly upwards to accommodate an increase in the number of beneficiaries through the inclusion of 4 million former Productive Safety Net Programme (PSNP) clients in the HRD. In other sectors such as health and nutrition, needs have also continued to increase mainly due to the deteriorating nutrition situation in Somali region, increase in the number of displaced people, as well as the Fall Army Worm (FAW) outbreak that continues to ravage crops throughout the country. (Gov't of Ethiopia, OCHA, 19 Oct 2017)
Due to drought and large-scale displacement in the southern and south-eastern lowland areas of Ethiopia, humanitarian needs are expected to remain significant in 2018. As of September 2017, 1.3 million people, 64 per cent of whom are children, are displaced due to conflict and drought. The majority of these people will remain displaced in 2018. (UNICEF, 4 Jan 2018)
The meher assessment findings revealed that two previous years of consecutive drought, compounded with weak rains at the end of 2017 left hundreds of thousands destitute in southern and south-eastern Ethiopia. Poor pasture regeneration and limited water source replenishment for livestock have resulted in acute humanitarian needs and will reduce traditional recovery processes among pastoralist households. Consequently, the food security situation in the lowland agro-pastoral areas is not expected to improve significantly in 2018. Overall, the good harvest in highland areas, is expected to reduce large scale needs in the northern highlands, however reduced harvest and crop loss were experienced due to erratic rainfall in some potential areas. The multi-sector humanitarian response operation established over the course of 2017 will need to be sustained in 2018. The extent of needs and the corresponding humanitarian operation will be reviewed during the belg/gu/ganna assessment in June/July. (Gov't of Ethiopia, OCHA, 09 Mar 2018)
A recent FEWS NET survey in Dollo Zone of Somali Region suggests food security and nutrition outcomes have improved significantly in areas worst affected by drought in 2016 and 2017. These improvements are largely due to improvements in seasonal performance, continued humanitarian assistance delivery, and declines in disease outbreaks. Currently, worst affected areas such as Dollo Zone and much of southeastern Somali Region are in Crisis (IPC Phase 3), with humanitarian assistance preventing a further deterioration among some populations, particularly IDPs. While the risk of a deterioration beyond Emergency (IPC Phase 4) has declined, continued humanitarian assistance is needed through at least September... The 2018 Belg (March to May) rains performed very poorly over most northern Belg-producing areas, leading harvests to be as much as 40 percent below average and delayed by one to two months. (FEWSNET, 12 Jul 2018)
Crisis (IPC Phase 3) outcomes are projected to persist through at least January 2019 across large areas of Somali Region, as drought recovery continues amidst recent conflicts. In addition, ethnic conflicts in Oromia along the Somali border and between West Guji of Oromia and Gedeo of SNNPR have caused significant displacement, restricting typical access to food and income sources. As a result, Crisis (IPC Phase 3) or Stressed (IPC Phase 2!) outcomes, only in the presence of humanitarian assistance, are projected to continue. (FEWSNET, 31 Aug 2018)
Appeals & Response Plans
Maps & Infographics
Most read reports
- Multi-dimensional Child Deprivation in Ethiopia - First National Estimates
- Ethiopia Humanitarian Bulletin Issue 72 | 7 - 20 January 2019
- WHO AFRO Outbreaks and Other Emergencies, Week 3: 12 - 18 January 2019; Data as reported by 17:00; 18 January 2019
- Aperçu du Financement Humanitaire en 2018 - Appels coordonnés par les Nations Unies
- FAO Early Warning Early Action report on food security and agriculture (January - March 2019)
This Weekly Bulletin focuses on selected acute public health emergencies occurring in the WHO African Region. The WHO Health Emergencies Programme is currently monitoring 58 events in the region. This week’s edition covers key new and ongoing events, including:
• Scaled-up response urgently required to more than 250,000 IDPs in Western Ethiopia
• Durable Solutions as nexus opportunity in Somali region: Lessons from SDC
• New law grants nearly a million refugees to exercise more rights in Ethiopia
• Nearly 36 million children in Ethiopia are poor and lack access to basic social services: report
• Humanitarian funding update
Humanitarian Coordianator calls for a scale-up response to displacement crisis in Western Ethiopia
À la fin du mois de décembre 2018, 21 Plans de réponse humanitaire (HRP) et le Plan régional de réponse pour la Syrie (3RP) nécessitaient 24,93 milliards de dollars pour assister 97,9 millions de personnes ayant un besoin urgent d’assistance humanitaire. Les financements requis restaient identiques à ceux enregistrés à fin du mois de novembre 2018. Les plans sont financés à hauteur de 14,58 milliards de dollars, comblant 58,5% des besoins financiers pour 2018.
The Early Warning Early Action (EWEA) report on food security and agriculture is produced by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO). It provides a quarterly forward-looking analysis of major disaster risks to food security and agriculture, specifically highlighting:
Somali REGION - KEY FINDINGS
LOCATION AND CAUSE OF DISPLACEMENT: 1,006,276 displaced individuals comprising 167,652 households in 389 displacement sites were identified in Somali region. These figures represent a decrease of (9,890) in the total individuals (-0.97%) a decrease of (594) households (-0.35%) and an increase of 1 sites (+0.26%) since round 13 (September/October 2018). 45.6% sites opened in 2017 and 21.14% opened in 2018. Conflict was the primary cause of displacement for an estimated 65% of the displaced population.
Gambella REGION - KEY FINDINGS
LOCATION AND CAUSE OF DISPLACEMENT: 24,689 displaced individuals comprising 3,624 households in 14 displacement sites were identified in Gambella region. These figures represent a crease of 3,616 in the total individuals (+17.16%) a crease of 398 households (+12.34%) and an increase of 0 sites (0.00%) since round 13 (September/October 2018). 62.4% sites opened in 2017 and 8.7% opened in 2018. Conflict was the primary cause of displacement for an estimated 85% of the displaced population.
Amhara REGION - KEY FINDINGS
LOCATION AND CAUSE OF DISPLACEMENT: 13,519 displaced individuals comprising 4,109 households in 59 displacement sites were identified in Amhara region. These figures represent a increase of 1,698 in the total individuals (+14.36%) an increase of 377 households (+10.10%) and an increase of 12 sites (+25.53%) since round 13 (September/ October 2018). 23.8% sites opened in 2017 and 39.1% opened in 2018. Conflict was the primary cause of displacement for an estimated 98% of the displaced population.
Tigray REGION - KEY FINDINGS
LOCATION AND CAUSE OF DISPLACEMENT: 72,113 displaced individuals comprising 33,448 households in 149 displacement sites were identified in Tigray region. These figures represent an increase of 22,561 in the total individuals (+45.53%) an increase of 12,606 households (+60.48%) and an increase of 46 sites (+44.66%) since round 13 (September/October 2018). 2.3% sites opened in 2017 and 12.75% opened in 2018.
Conflict was the primary cause of displacement for an estimated 98% of the displaced population.
Afar REGION - KEY FINDINGS
LOCATION AND CAUSE OF DISPLACEMENT: 50,619 displaced individuals comprising 8,780 households in 54 displacement sites were identified in Afar region. These figures represent an increase of 2,282 in the total individuals (+4.72%) a decrease of (36) households (-0.41%) and since round 13 (September/October 2018) no increment on sites. 14.7% sites opened in 2017 and 1.2% opened in 2018. Drought was the primary cause of displacement for an estimated 35% of the displaced population.
Oromia REGION - KEY FINDINGS
LOCATION AND CAUSE OF DISPLACEMENT:
1,145,848 displaced individuals comprising 180,772 households in 515 displacement sites were identified in Oromia region. These figures represent an increase of 238,323 in the total individuals (+26.26%) an increase of 36,871 households (+25.62%) and an increase of 49 sites (+10.52%) since round 13 (September/October 2018). 41.0% sites opened in 2017 and 35.8% opened in 2018. Conflict was the primary cause of displacement for an estimated 86% of the displaced population.
CONTEXTUAL ANALYSIS AND DRIVERS OF DISPLACEMENT
The majority of the recorded population were displaced during 2017 with 604 sites which reportedly opened in 2017 (DTM Rounds 3-8). Conflict was reported as the primary driver of displacement (1,773,482IDPs), followed by displacement due to climate induced factors (498,417IDPs). This trend is consistent over time, with conflict constantly being the primary cause of displacement across the country.
A new Global Compact on Refugees has been agreed upon by UN members states. The compact will further guide the roll-out of Comprehensive Refugee Response Framework (CRRF) in Ethiopia, and across the world.
Two multi-dollar investments were made by the global fund ‘Education Cannot Wait’ and the African Development Bank in December which have potential to further the Global Compact and CRRF agenda in Ethiopia.
This Weekly Bulletin focuses on selected acute public health emergencies occurring in the WHO African Region. The WHO Health Emergencies Programme (WHE) is currently monitoring 60 events in the region. This week’s edition covers key ongoing events, including:
FOOD SECURITY SNAPSHOT
Favourable prospects for 2018 main “meher” season
Reduced 2018 “belg” secondary season harvest in parts of Tigray and Amhara regions due to erratic rains
Below-average “deyr” rains curbing drought recovery in southeastern pastoral areas
Prices of maize declining in recent months and at low levels due to adequate domestic availabilities
Food insecure caseload estimated at a high 7.95 million
At the end of December 2018, 21 Humanitarian Response Plans (HRP) and the Syria Regional Response Plan (3RP) required US$24.93 billion to assist 97.9 million people in urgent need of humanitarian support. The requirements remained unchanged as of the end of November 2018. The plans are funded at $14.58 billion which amounts to 58.5 per cent of financial requirements for 2018. Notably, the percentage of total funding contributed through humanitarian response plans carried out by the UN with partners in 2018 is estimated at 62.9%.
• Amhara region requests US$8 million to address the needs of mounting number of IDPs.
Amhara region requests US$8 million to address the needs of mounting number of IDPs
Poor October to December seasonal rainfall and sustained ethnic clashes continue
Deyr/Hagaya seasonal rainfall (October to December) in southern pastoral areas has been below average. It has been also erratic in temporal and spatial distribution and the onset was delayed. Southeastern pastoral areas continue to recover from drought in 2016 and 2017 and will remain in Crisis (IPC Phase 3) through at least May 2019.
According to FEWSNET issue of November 2018, seasonal rainfall has remained uncharacteristically erratic and significantly below average across most of Central and Southern Somalia, the SouthEastern Somali region of Ethiopia, and the Northern and Eastern regions of Kenya. However, several areas along the East Africa coastal strip and in the Somali region of Ethiopia received well above average rainfall amounts during this period.
Despite the benefit of recent Belg rains and anticipated above average rainfall in many regions the coming months, recovery of livelihoods will not be spontaneous, nor can it be expected without concerted assistance. Belg rainfall did not cover all regions equally, and although rainfall in southern pastoral areas was forecast to be near average for the Deyir (Oct-Dec), rainfall is below average to date. Below-average rainfall in eastern Oromia, southern Tigray, eastern Amhara and northern SNNPR has led to reduced production prospects.
Benishangul Gumuz IDP Rapid Response Plan seeks US$25.5 million.
Emergency Operations Center (EOC) set up for coordinated IDP Response in East and West Wollega
At least 2.4 million people are currently displaced by intercommunal violence across the country.
IDP Rapid Response Plan for Benishangul Gumuz and the Wollegas seeks US$25.5 million