Ethiopia: Drought - 2015-2019Ongoing
While Ethiopia battles residual needs from the 2015/2016 El Niño-induced drought, below average 2016 autumn rains in the southern and southeastern parts of the country have led to a new drought in lowland pastoralist areas, as well as in pocket areas across the country. As a result, some 5.6 million people in Ethiopia require emergency food assistance in 2017. In addition, 2.7 million children and pregnant and lactating mothers require supplementary feeding, 9.2 million people need support to access safe drinking water, 1.9 million households need livestock support, and 300,000 children between 6-59 months old are targeted for the treatment for severe acute malnutrition in 2017. Drought conditions are expected to peak during the dry December to March jilaal season, which is likely to lead to a sharper deterioration in livestock body conditions, and impacting milk production and nutrition status of the families that depend on livestock for their food and income. During the dry season, the response will be complemented by supplementary food based on regular screenings to ensure the most vulnerable are reached. (OCHA, 17 Feb 2017)
Southern and eastern Ethiopia continue to battle the impact of the Indian Ocean Dipole-induced drought, exacerbated by disease outbreaks, large scale loss of livelihood assets and displacement. The humanitarian situation countrywide has been further compounded by below average spring rains – the third consecutive poor/failed rains in the southern drought belt. [...] In the second half of 2017, some 8.5 million people will require emergency food assistance, some 3.6 million children and pregnant and lactating mothers will require supplementary feeding, some 10.5 million people will not have regular access to safe drinking water and some 2.25 million households will require livestock support. Partners also estimate that 376,000 children will become severely acutely malnourished until the end of 2017. (Gov't of Ethiopia, OCHA, 08 Aug 2017)
Since the revision of the Humanitarian Requirements Document (HRD) in August 2017, the humanitarian context in Ethiopia has continued to evolve which has led the Government and humanitarian partners to further adjust the HRD requirements. In the food sector the needs have been revised slightly upwards to accommodate an increase in the number of beneficiaries through the inclusion of 4 million former Productive Safety Net Programme (PSNP) clients in the HRD. In other sectors such as health and nutrition, needs have also continued to increase mainly due to the deteriorating nutrition situation in Somali region, increase in the number of displaced people, as well as the Fall Army Worm (FAW) outbreak that continues to ravage crops throughout the country. (Gov't of Ethiopia, OCHA, 19 Oct 2017)
Due to drought and large-scale displacement in the southern and south-eastern lowland areas of Ethiopia, humanitarian needs are expected to remain significant in 2018. As of September 2017, 1.3 million people, 64 per cent of whom are children, are displaced due to conflict and drought. The majority of these people will remain displaced in 2018. (UNICEF, 4 Jan 2018)
The meher assessment findings revealed that two previous years of consecutive drought, compounded with weak rains at the end of 2017 left hundreds of thousands destitute in southern and south-eastern Ethiopia. Poor pasture regeneration and limited water source replenishment for livestock have resulted in acute humanitarian needs and will reduce traditional recovery processes among pastoralist households. Consequently, the food security situation in the lowland agro-pastoral areas is not expected to improve significantly in 2018. Overall, the good harvest in highland areas, is expected to reduce large scale needs in the northern highlands, however reduced harvest and crop loss were experienced due to erratic rainfall in some potential areas. The multi-sector humanitarian response operation established over the course of 2017 will need to be sustained in 2018. The extent of needs and the corresponding humanitarian operation will be reviewed during the belg/gu/ganna assessment in June/July. (Gov't of Ethiopia, OCHA, 09 Mar 2018)
A recent FEWS NET survey in Dollo Zone of Somali Region suggests food security and nutrition outcomes have improved significantly in areas worst affected by drought in 2016 and 2017. These improvements are largely due to improvements in seasonal performance, continued humanitarian assistance delivery, and declines in disease outbreaks. Currently, worst affected areas such as Dollo Zone and much of southeastern Somali Region are in Crisis (IPC Phase 3), with humanitarian assistance preventing a further deterioration among some populations, particularly IDPs. While the risk of a deterioration beyond Emergency (IPC Phase 4) has declined, continued humanitarian assistance is needed through at least September... The 2018 Belg (March to May) rains performed very poorly over most northern Belg-producing areas, leading harvests to be as much as 40 percent below average and delayed by one to two months. (FEWSNET, 12 Jul 2018)
Crisis (IPC Phase 3) outcomes are projected to persist through at least January 2019 across large areas of Somali Region, as drought recovery continues amidst recent conflicts. In addition, ethnic conflicts in Oromia along the Somali border and between West Guji of Oromia and Gedeo of SNNPR have caused significant displacement, restricting typical access to food and income sources. As a result, Crisis (IPC Phase 3) or Stressed (IPC Phase 2!) outcomes, only in the presence of humanitarian assistance, are projected to continue. (FEWSNET, 31 Aug 2018)
Appeals & Response Plans
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Global trends and challenges
More than 1 per cent of people across the planet right now are caught up in major humanitarian crises. The international humanitarian system is more effective than ever at meeting their needs – but global trends including poverty, population growth and climate change are leaving more people than ever vulnerable to the devastating impacts of conflicts and disasters.
• The Government of Ethiopia and the UN presented the 2018 humanitarian and disaster resilience plan (HDRP) to member states.
• The HDRP seeks at least $1.6 billion to provide emergency and long-term assistance for 7.88 million people affected by drought, floods and conflict.
Gov’t and UN brief Member States on Ethiopia humanitarian situation
The effects of climate change are being felt by farmers throughout the world. Flooding, drought and weather that does not follow typical seasonal patterns have resulted in poor and unpredictable crop yields. To address these challenges Christian Aid (CA) is leading the BRACED consortia, Zaman Lebidi in Burkina Faso and CIARE in Ethiopia, which aim to make people’s livelihoods more resilient to climate shocks and stresses.
FIELD-LEVEL IMPLEMENTATION URGENTLY REQUIRED
The Call to Action on Protection from Gender-based Violence in Emergencies, a multi-stakeholder initiative launched in 2013 by the governments of the United Kingdom and Sweden, aims to fundamentally transform the way gender-based violence (GBV) is addressed in emergencies, so that every humanitarian response provides safe and comprehensive services for those affected by GBV and mitigates GBV risk from the earliest phases of a crisis.
This case study describes implementation of the project Institutionalizing Gender in Emergencies: Bridging Policy and Practice. The project, supported by ECHO Enhanced Response Capacity and Oxfam, has been implemented by Oxfam in Ethiopia between September 2015 and March 2017
1 THE PROJECT IN CONTEXT
Our understanding of the constraints holding back Africa’s women farmers and entrepreneurs is improving – thanks to an ICARDA-managed wheat initiative working across sub-Saharan Africa.
Gender inequality is a recurring feature of many agricultural production systems across the wheat-growing regions of Africa, and women farmers often lack access to credit, land, and other inputs. The result: limited adoption of new innovations, low productivity and income, and a missed opportunity to enhance household food security and prosperity.
• Many countries across the African continent face recurrent complex emergencies, frequent food insecurity, cyclical drought, and sudden-onset disasters such as earthquakes, floods, and storms. In FY 2016, as in previous years, USAID/OFDA not only responded to urgent needs resulting from disasters, but also supported DRR programs that built resilience and improved emergency preparedness, mitigation, and response capacity at local, national, and regional levels.
167,688 The total number of IDPs in 2016 according to the Displacement Tracking Matrix carried out between September and October 2016
10.2M Individuals affected by the drought according to the 2016 Humanitarian Requirements Document.
USD 23.8M Protection funding requirements 21.5 % funded
Institutionalising Gender in Emergencies: Ethiopia Gender Analysis
Understanding needs and context is vital in an emergency response. A crucial, and often overlooked, factor in this is gender. Here, Steph Avis, introduces the first of a series of reports from the ECHO funded project 'Institutionalising Gender in Emergencies'.
This paper presents the key findings of a research project that investigated women’s and men’s vulnerability to drought in Fedis woreda, a district located in Eastern Ethiopia. It focuses on the gendered impacts of drought on rural livelihoods in dryland areas. The research used a comparative assessment of both men’s and women’s susceptibility and coping capacities.
The devastating impacts of the 2015–16 El Niño will be felt well into 2017. This crisis was predicted, yet overall, the response has been too little too late. The looming La Niña event may further hit communities that are already deeply vulnerable.
Background: Drought, worsened by the effects of El-Nino is having a devastating impact on the lives and livelihoods of Ethiopians, and according to the Government and the inter-agency mid-Meher and Meher seasonal assessments, the number of people that will require food assistance in 2016 increased from 8.2 million in October 2015 to 10.2 million in December 2015, making Ethiopia home to the largest acutely food insecure population in the world.
The HRD is funded at US$1 billion, but a significant gap remains, including in the critical food sector.
The drought disproportionately affects women – particularly pregnant and breastfeeding mothers - who suffer most from health complications and malnutrition.
Government calls for joint action to curb to spread of the AWD outbreak
Women and girls among displaced people remain at high risk of GBV in the region.
Conflict-related sexual violence (CRSV) is the most prevalent form of GBV in humanitarian settings in eastern Africa.
Child marriage, rape and physical abuse are the common forms of GBV in stable environments, including southern Africa.
Regional WHS Commitments on gender call for end to financing gender blind programming.
Hunger: It’s not a new problem for many countries in Africa.
While food is a basic necessity for human life, the reasons why millions of people go hungry are complex.
Crops are failing in **Ethiopia** due to dry weather conditions caused by El Nino, leading to the worst drought in a decade and triggering a hunger crisis that is affecting 10 million people.
Snapshot 4–10 November 2015
Nepal: Crossings on the India–Nepal border have been closed since late September as a result of protests, leading to fuel shortages that are severely hampering humanitarian assistance. Of particular concern are 400,000 people living in remote areas who cannot be reached during winter and need winterisation supplies. Hospitals in Terai region are reporting acute shortages of medicine, while food and cooking-gas shortages are reported across the country.
Snapshot 28 October – 3 November 2015
Syria: 1 million more people are in need of humanitarian assistance than a year ago, as the total is now at 13.5 million. 6.6 million people are internally displaced, with 120,000 newly displaced in Aleppo, Hama, and Idleb governorates. Shelter, food, and WASH are reported as priority needs for the newly displaced.
Snapshot 21-27 October 2015