Ethiopia: Drought - 2015-2018Ongoing
While Ethiopia battles residual needs from the 2015/2016 El Niño-induced drought, below average 2016 autumn rains in the southern and southeastern parts of the country have led to a new drought in lowland pastoralist areas, as well as in pocket areas across the country. As a result, some 5.6 million people in Ethiopia require emergency food assistance in 2017. In addition, 2.7 million children and pregnant and lactating mothers require supplementary feeding, 9.2 million people need support to access safe drinking water, 1.9 million households need livestock support, and 300,000 children between 6-59 months old are targeted for the treatment for severe acute malnutrition in 2017. Drought conditions are expected to peak during the dry December to March jilaal season, which is likely to lead to a sharper deterioration in livestock body conditions, and impacting milk production and nutrition status of the families that depend on livestock for their food and income. During the dry season, the response will be complemented by supplementary food based on regular screenings to ensure the most vulnerable are reached. (OCHA, 17 Feb 2017)
Southern and eastern Ethiopia continue to battle the impact of the Indian Ocean Dipole-induced drought, exacerbated by disease outbreaks, large scale loss of livelihood assets and displacement. The humanitarian situation countrywide has been further compounded by below average spring rains – the third consecutive poor/failed rains in the southern drought belt. [...] In the second half of 2017, some 8.5 million people will require emergency food assistance, some 3.6 million children and pregnant and lactating mothers will require supplementary feeding, some 10.5 million people will not have regular access to safe drinking water and some 2.25 million households will require livestock support. Partners also estimate that 376,000 children will become severely acutely malnourished until the end of 2017. (Gov't of Ethiopia, OCHA, 08 Aug 2017)
Since the revision of the Humanitarian Requirements Document (HRD) in August 2017, the humanitarian context in Ethiopia has continued to evolve which has led the Government and humanitarian partners to further adjust the HRD requirements. In the food sector the needs have been revised slightly upwards to accommodate an increase in the number of beneficiaries through the inclusion of 4 million former Productive Safety Net Programme (PSNP) clients in the HRD. In other sectors such as health and nutrition, needs have also continued to increase mainly due to the deteriorating nutrition situation in Somali region, increase in the number of displaced people, as well as the Fall Army Worm (FAW) outbreak that continues to ravage crops throughout the country. (Gov't of Ethiopia, OCHA, 19 Oct 2017)
Due to drought and large-scale displacement in the southern and south-eastern lowland areas of Ethiopia, humanitarian needs are expected to remain significant in 2018. As of September 2017, 1.3 million people, 64 per cent of whom are children, are displaced due to conflict and drought. The majority of these people will remain displaced in 2018. (UNICEF, 4 Jan 2018)
The meher assessment findings revealed that two previous years of consecutive drought, compounded with weak rains at the end of 2017 left hundreds of thousands destitute in southern and south-eastern Ethiopia. Poor pasture regeneration and limited water source replenishment for livestock have resulted in acute humanitarian needs and will reduce traditional recovery processes among pastoralist households. Consequently, the food security situation in the lowland agro-pastoral areas is not expected to improve significantly in 2018. Overall, the good harvest in highland areas, is expected to reduce large scale needs in the northern highlands, however reduced harvest and crop loss were experienced due to erratic rainfall in some potential areas. The multi-sector humanitarian response operation established over the course of 2017 will need to be sustained in 2018. The extent of needs and the corresponding humanitarian operation will be reviewed during the belg/gu/ganna assessment in June/July. (Gov't of Ethiopia, OCHA, 09 Mar 2018)
A recent FEWS NET survey in Dollo Zone of Somali Region suggests food security and nutrition outcomes have improved significantly in areas worst affected by drought in 2016 and 2017. These improvements are largely due to improvements in seasonal performance, continued humanitarian assistance delivery, and declines in disease outbreaks. Currently, worst affected areas such as Dollo Zone and much of southeastern Somali Region are in Crisis (IPC Phase 3), with humanitarian assistance preventing a further deterioration among some populations, particularly IDPs. While the risk of a deterioration beyond Emergency (IPC Phase 4) has declined, continued humanitarian assistance is needed through at least September... The 2018 Belg (March to May) rains performed very poorly over most northern Belg-producing areas, leading harvests to be as much as 40 percent below average and delayed by one to two months. (FEWSNET, 12 Jul 2018)
Crisis (IPC Phase 3) outcomes are projected to persist through at least January 2019 across large areas of Somali Region, as drought recovery continues amidst recent conflicts. In addition, ethnic conflicts in Oromia along the Somali border and between West Guji of Oromia and Gedeo of SNNPR have caused significant displacement, restricting typical access to food and income sources. As a result, Crisis (IPC Phase 3) or Stressed (IPC Phase 2!) outcomes, only in the presence of humanitarian assistance, are projected to continue. (FEWSNET, 31 Aug 2018)
Appeals & Response Plans
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Low-income, rainfed subsistence farmers are amongst Ethiopia’s most vulnerable segment of population, particularly when rainy seasons start late and end early. About 40% of the targeted 50,000 households are headed by women and about 60% are enrolled in the country’s Productive Safety Net Project, a well-established social protection program that serves eight million low income people.
• Food Cluster: 8.5 million emergency beneficiaries and 4.5 m ex-public work clients received emergency food commodities.
During the last quarter of 2017, IDPs were also targeted for emergency food distribution. There were delays in food distribution especially in Somali region. One round was dropped and two rounds were carried over to the first quarter of 2018. As a result, out of nine only six rounds of food distribution were completed within 2017.
The R4 Rural Resilience Initiative (R4) is a strategic partnership between Oxfam America (OA) and the United Nations World Food Programme (WFP). R4 was initiated in 2011 to respond to the challenges faced by food insecure communities enduring increasingly frequent and intense climate disasters and other shocks.
This issue of Knowledge Matters starts with an overview of how Concern understands community resilience and goes on to share learning emerging from its programmes across the drylands of the Sahel and East Africa including Chad, Sudan, Niger, Kenya and Somalia as well as the more flood and earthquake-affected areas of Pakistan and Afghanistan. It shares new programme models and tools being used by Concern such as the Community-based Management of Acute Malnutrition Surge Approach and the Flood Resilience Measurement Tool.
This report provides an assessment of lessons learned from a pilot project in Borana Zone, Oromia National Regional State, Ethiopia, that tests efforts to strengthen climate resilience and their contributions to conflict prevention.
Roop Singh, Red Cross Red Crescent Climate Centre
The 2016–2017 drought across the Horn of Africa has contributed to failed harvests,extensive livestock deaths and food insecurity. Key informant interviews conducted with humanitarian and development actors, donors and forecasters in Ethiopia and Kenya reveal lessons on using forecasts to trigger early action for humanitarian and development practitioners.
2017 in brief
The Productive Safety Net Program was launched in 2005 to fight chronic food security issues in Ethiopia. The program falls under the work-for-food category where community members receive cash transfers in lieu of working on projects. The study evaluates the impacts of these community programs beyond the beneficiary households, by using the local economy-wide impact evaluation(LEWIE) model.
A tale of two countries: Different pathways towards refugee self-reliance
Famine: Lessons Learned was produced as the world was responding to four potential famines simultaneously – in Nigeria, South Sudan, Yemen and Somalia.
Much has been written and researched on famine, and many lessons on how to best prevent and respond to famine have been learned the hard way. This paper therefore draws on lessons learned from the last 30-plus years of famine crises and response, going back to famines in Ethiopia and Sudan in the 1980s, up to the most recent famine in Somalia in 2011.
Oxfam GB’s Global Performance Framework is part of the organisation’s effort to better understand and communicate its effectiveness, as well as enhance learning across the organisation. Under this Framework, a small number of completed or mature projects are selected at random each year for an evaluation of their impact, known as an ‘Effectiveness Review’. One key focus is on the extent they have promoted change in relation to relevant Oxfam GB global outcome indicators.
1.1 What is ACCRA?
These are the words of Mulu Yami, 28, from Bushoftu town in Ethiopia; she is one of the 30,000 smallholders who were reached by the Food Security and Rural Entrepreneurship Fund (FSRE fund). She has a poultry business. The FSRE Innovation Fund was financed by the Embassy of the Kingdom of the Netherlands in Ethiopia and managed by ICCO Cooperation on behalf of AgriProFocus.
Methodology and limitations
• Time period covered: 17-28 March 2017
• The National Disaster Risk Management Commission (NDRMC) and UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (OCHA) collaborated in calling DPPB and other woreda officials in 261 priority 1 and 2 woredas
• Some woredas remain uncovered because of the telephone network and lack of information with DPPB officials
• Results presented here have had no further triangulation
Some major headlines: