Kenya: Drought - 2014-2018Ongoing
On 10 February the Government declared a national drought emergency, with 23 of 47 counties affected. The number of food insecure people more than doubled – from 1.3 million to 2.7 million. Some 357,285 children and pregnant and lactating mothers are acutely malnourished. The latest nutrition surveys showed that three sub-counties (Turkana North, North Hor (Marsabit), Mandera) had GAM rates above 30 per cent. Six sub-counties (Turkana Central, Turkana South, Turkana West, Laisamis, East Pokot (Baringo), Isiolo) had GAM rates between 15 and 29 per cent.
Maize production in the coastal areas decreased by 99 per cent compared to the long term average. People have to travel further to access water, for example in Baringo, household walk three times longer than normal. Pastoralist communities in the Arid and Semi-Arid Lands (ASAL) counties are losing their livestock - with reports of large numbers of animal deaths in Turkana, Marsabit, Samburu and Mandera counties. Data collected by UNICEF from 10 affected counties indicated that close to 175,000 children were not attending early pre-primary and primary schools, primarily due to the drought’s impact. (OCHA, 17 Feb 2017)
More than 2.6 million Kenyans were severely food insecure as of 26 May 2017 — and this number was rapidly rising. High levels of malnutrition are prevalent across the arid and semi-arid lands. Three sub-counties report Global Acute Malnutrition rates of 30 per cent, double the emergency threshold. Severe drought has dried up water resources in half of Kenya’s 47 counties and an estimated 3 million people lack access to clean water. Recurrent droughts have destroyed livelihoods, triggered local conflicts over scare resources and eroded the ability of communities to cope. Families are on the move, which poses protection risks for women and children. More than 1.2 million children are in need of education assistance. Kenya is experiencing multiple disease outbreaks including cholera/Acute Watery Diarrhea and measles. An estimated 2.9 million people require lifesaving medical interventions and community-based primary health outreach. (OCHA, 26 May 2017)
The National Drought Management Authority’s (NDMA) early warning bulletin for June indicates that while the long rains have ended, many parts of the Arid and Semi-arid Lands (ASALs) are still experiencing long distances between home and water sources, unusually high food prices, and worrying levels of malnutrition. Being the third consecutive below-average rainfall season, the modest recovery conditions in some parts of ASALs are likely to be short-lived. Therefore, the upcoming dry season (June to September) will be a difficult one for the ASALs in terms of malnutrition and access to water and food, particularly for pastoral communities. Insecurity linked to resource-based conflicts has worsened, while Fall Armyworm and African Armyworm infestations continue to threaten crops in marginal agricultural counties, further worsening the prospects for the next harvest. (UNICEF, 19 Jun 2017)
The Horn of Africa is experiencing one of the worst hunger crises in recent times due to a prolonged drought. The current drought is worse in a number of ways than in 2011, with some areas experiencing the failure of three rains in a row. In Kenya, 2.6 million people are experiencing crisis levels of food insecurity. The number could increase to 3.5 million in need of targeted assistance by August. In parts of Marsabit and Turkana, where communities are unable to reach sustained humanitarian assistance, they are at risk of sliding in to emergency levels of hunger (IPC Phase 4), one step away from famine, between July and September.
The March–May rains have been below average and it is likely that the July food harvests will also be below average, leading to a corresponding decline in access to and consumption of food. In addition, the African armyworm infestation has already affected around 69,000 hectares of farming land, prices of basic food commodities, such as maize, in Kenya have soared with overall inflation for the month of May 2017 reaching a five-year high of 11.7 per cent, and livestock prices in pastoralist areas are low due to the poor condition of animals. As a result people are reducing what they eat, with many families eating one meal a day. Food shortages are further compounded by anxiety around upcoming general elections which may politicize the crisis, a lack of access to water due to non-operational water points, and high levels of severe acute malnutrition among children below the age of five. (OXFAM, 4 July 2017)
Following at least two consecutive poor rainy seasons, food security needs are expected to peak in October 2017 as food and income sources are below-average across the majority of pastoral and marginal agricultural areas. As a result, Crisis (IPC Phase 3) outcomes are expected through early December in areas of Turkana, Marsabit, Mandera, Wajir, Isiolo, Garissa, Tana River, Samburu, and Laikipia, requiring urgent humanitarian assistance. However, an improvement to Stressed (IPC Phase 2) outcomes is expected across all pastoral areas in early 2018; however, some of the most vulnerable households are still likely to be in Crisis (IPC Phase 3). (FEWS, 18 Nov 2017)
In Kenya, drought conditions that are expected to persist into 2018 have left 3.4 million people severely food insecure and an estimated 500,000 people without access to water. An estimated 482,882 children require treatment for acute malnutrition, including 104,614 who are suffering from severe acute malnutrition (SAM). Eighty-eight per cent of these children are from 23 arid and semi-arid counties. Drought conditions have led to declines in school attendance and school participation and rising dropout rates. (UNICEF, 4 Jan 2018)
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by Caroline Wambui | Thomson Reuters Foundation
Friday, 20 April 2018 02:25 GMT
The loss of fruit trees for firewood and charcoal is hurting food security, particularly as droughts lengthen
KAJUKI, Kenya, April 20 (Thomson Reuters Foundation) - When Leah Mutembei was growing up in Kajuki, a village in central Kenya, most farms were dotted with avocado and mango trees.
"But now they have all gone," the 32-year-old maize farmer said from her homestead, gesturing to the barren land nearby.
Wednesday, 4 April 2018 11:47 GMT
Proceeds from green bonds help finance projects in renewable energy, green transport and energy-efficiency
NAIROBI, April 4 (Reuters) - A non-profit organisation plans to issue a 1.5 billion shilling ($15 million) bond this year to fund Kenyan water utilities.
Read more on the Thomson Reuters Foundation.
↗ International prices of wheat and maize rose in March for the third consecutive month and averaged more than 10 percent above their levels in December 2017. Prices were mainly supported by concerns over the impact of prolonged dryness in key-growing areas of the United States of America and Argentina, coupled with strong demand. International rice prices remained relatively stable.
This study, based on analyses of current and projected ways to mitigate drought impacts in drylands, quantifies the potential for strengthening crop- and livestock-based livelihoods, identifies promising interventions, quantifies their likely costs and benefits, and describes the policy trade-offs that will need to be addressed when drylands development strategies are devised. This study was designed to contribute to the ongoing dialogue about measures to reduce the vulnerability and enhance the resilience of populations living in drylands.
• Following security operations and political tensions, some 10,557 people from the Oromia region in Moyale, Ethiopia, have been displaced across the border to Moyale in Marsabit county, Kenya, since 10 March. More than 80% of the asylum seekers are women and children, including 600 pregnant women and 1,500 children under five. UNICEF is supporting response coordination and is providing WASH, Health, Nutrition, Child Protection and NFIs support.
The Horn of Africa has been grappling with the effects of consecutive failed rains across Kenya, Ethiopia and Somalia that led to 12 million people in need of humanitarian assistance at the start of 2017.
Children bore the brunt of the crisis as their families struggled to survive in a worsening situation that resulted in malnutrition, increased susceptibility to diseases, limited access to school and exposure to protection concerns as families would migrate in search of food and water.
Staple Food Markets in East Africa: White maize is the main staple grain consumed in Tanzania, Kenya, and Ethiopia. In Uganda, white maize is grown mainly as a commercial crop for export in the region. Imported rice is a major staple for Somalia, which mainly consume belem—the imported red rice. Tanzania is also a major producer and source of rice in the region while Kenya and Uganda are minor producers. Both red and white sorghum are produced and consumed in the region. This is an important staple in Sudan and Somalia as well as in other marginal agricultural areas of the region.
Maize and beans are the most important commodities consumed, with maize availability considered synonymous with food security. Beans are very often consumed with maize. The Nairobi market is indicative for urban consumers. Eldoret is a producing area and located in the “grain basket zone.” Kisumu is a large market located in a deficit area with marginal agricultural productivity. Kitui is prone to droughts and is a marginal producing area. Lodwar market is located in Turkana, a highly food insecure pastoral district which is poorly integrated with other markets.
Sorghum makes important contributions to national food supply in the counties covered in this report, accounting for the majority of grain production in Sudan, South Sudan and Somalia (82, 76 and 55 percent, respectively), and smaller amounts in Ethiopia and Uganda (18 and ten percent, accordingly). Sorghum accounts over half of grain consumption in South Sudan and Sudan and nine to 18 percent in Somalia, Ethiopia, and Uganda, respectively.
With below average rains experienced across the region, some locations in the Horn of Africa are expected to continue to drive humanitarian needs for the next six months. A weak La Niña will likely persist into the second quarter of 2018, which is historically associated with below average rainfall.
According to experts who spoke in the 48th Greater Horn of Africa Climate Outlook Forum, La Niña could trigger severe hunger and lack of water for both humans and livestock, potentially increase conflict between communities over scarce resources and could increased migrations.
Regional Mixed Migration Secretariat (RMMS) summary for February 2018 covering mixed migration events, trends and data for Djibouti, Eritrea, South Sudan, Sudan, Ethiopia, Kenya, Uganda, Somalia / Somaliland and Yemen.
3,810 new arrivals were registered in February 2018-2,215 in Kakuma, 1,587 in Nairobi, and 8 in Dadaab.
76,589 Somalis have been assisted to return to Somalia under the voluntary repatriation programme since 2014.
231,103 (48%) refugees reside in Dadaab, 185,899 (38%), in Kakuma & Kalobeyei Settlement and 66,595 (14%) in Nairobi.
Working with Partners
The first camp in Dadaab was established in 1991. There are 4 camps in Dadaab: Hagadera,
Dagahaley, Ifo and Ifo 2.
Since December 2014, Somali refugees who decide to voluntarily return to their home country, receive UNHCR support in Kenya and Somalia.
A total of 4,949 non-Somalis refugees were relocated to Kakuma. The relocation is currently suspended due to the limited absorption capacity and services in Kalobeyei.
185,867 The number of refugees registered by UNHCR as of 3 March 2018.
2,227 The number of new arrivals with heightened protection needs registered in 2018.
2,848 Number of Somali refugees from Kakuma assisted to return to Somalia since February 2016.
- In 2013, Kisumu Water and Sewerage Company introduced a water distribution plan, the delegated management model (DMM), targeting low income earners.
- The model has improved the affordability and quality of water for slum dwellers in Kisumu while reducing losses from unaccounted-for water.
- Under DMM, the water utility firm is tasked with delivering cheaper, better quality water to previously unserved areas.
By Allan Olingo
- White maize grain was as usual, the most regionally traded commodity between October and December 2017 because of increasing supply from the previous June-to-July, and ongoing November-to-January harvests (see Figure 1). Recurrent conflict-related trade disruptions from southern to northern markets in South Sudan encouraged alternative imports from Sudan in the north.
• Millions of people are at increased risk of famine or catastrophe in South Sudan, Somalia and Ethiopia.
FEWSnet, an international early warning system, stated that South Sudan, Somalia and Ethiopia could be looking at famine or catastrophic levels of food insecurity in various parts of their countries in the new year due to climate change, conflict and political instability.
• People in need: According to Kenya Food Security meeting, 2.55 million people still require immediate food assistance from March to August 2018. This includes 2.35 million people who are in crisis and emergency drought classification, and 200,000 people who are in stress drought classification and require immediate food assistance.