Horn of Africa Crisis: 2011-2012
The Horn of Africa crisis of 2011-2012 affected 13 million people. The main focus of the crisis was across southern Ethiopia, south-central Somalia and northern Kenya. Regional drought came on top of successive bad rains and rising inflation. It ramped up a chronic livelihoods crisis into a tipping point of potential disaster by putting extreme pressure on food prices, livestock survival, and water and food availability. Armed conflict across the region compounded chronic ecological and economic vulnerability, which escalated the crisis and limited people’s survival and recovery choices. (IASC Real-Time Evaluation of the Humanitarian Response to the Horn of Africa Drought Crisis in Somalia, Ethiopia and Kenya - Synthesis Report)
Appeals & Response Plans
- Population and General
There are approximately 20 million pastoralists across Sub-Saharan Africa. Pastoralists - people who depend primarily on livestock or livestock products for income and food- typically graze their animals on communally managed or open-access pastures, and move with them seasonally. Adding in agro-pastoralists-who derive 50 per cent of their income from non-livestock resources-the numbers reaches over 30 million in the Greater Horn of Africa (CAADP Policy Brief No.6, March 2012).
The Heads of States of Inter-Governmental Authority on Development (IGAD) countries should be congratulated on the pledges to end drought emergencies made at the Nairobi Summit on the Horn of Africa Crisis in September 2011. However, limited progress has been made to implement those pledges, and dryland communities in the Horn of Africa are already faced with the prospect of possible below normal rainfall in the coming months. Thus urgent attention should be paid to speeding up the implementation of country plans and the Declaration particularly on the following issues:
GOOD PRACTICE EXAMPLES FROM THE ECHO DROUGHT CYCLE MANAGEMENT PARTNERS AND BEYOND
The current drought in The East and Horn of Africa is estimated to have affected 13 million people, of which 4.5 million are Kenyans. Lives and livelihoods have been lost. It has also caused extensive debates on how to end drought emergencies. The discussions have hit media headlines and formed agendas of national and international conferences. A few of the issues that have cut across all these discussions are the acknowledgement that:
· While drought is an unavoidable natural phenomenon, it need not and should not lead to famine and other disasters.
Lessons from Borana, Oromia and Harshin, Somali Regional States, Ethiopia
This Study on Ethiopia's Land Fragmentation in the drylands of the Horn of Africa and its effects on pastoral resilience. This is having a highly negative impact on pastoralism as an effective production system in these predominantly drylands areas,and increasing the vulnerability of those who rely on pastoralism for their food and livelihood security.
Organization Name Independent consultant Author Name Fiona Flintan , Boku Tache and Abdurehman Eid
Yet again, Kenya is facing impending drought, and the drylands are already bearing the brunt. Around 3 million people are currently affected, and it is likely the situation will get worse over the coming months. Water and pasture is already in short supply – and as livestock get weaker and their market value decreases, pastoralists have less income to buy food. Malnutrition is rising as families skip meals, take on debts to buy food, and weak cattle are unable to produce vital milk. Families are withdrawing children from school as they migrate with their cattle to find water.