Horn of Africa Crisis: 2011-2012
The Horn of Africa crisis of 2011-2012 affected 13 million people. The main focus of the crisis was across southern Ethiopia, south-central Somalia and northern Kenya. Regional drought came on top of successive bad rains and rising inflation. It ramped up a chronic livelihoods crisis into a tipping point of potential disaster by putting extreme pressure on food prices, livestock survival, and water and food availability. Armed conflict across the region compounded chronic ecological and economic vulnerability, which escalated the crisis and limited people’s survival and recovery choices. (IASC Real-Time Evaluation of the Humanitarian Response to the Horn of Africa Drought Crisis in Somalia, Ethiopia and Kenya - Synthesis Report)
Appeals & Funding
- Djibouti Appel global 2013
- Ethiopia Humanitarian Requirements 2013
- Kenya Emergency Humanitarian Response Plan 2013
- Somalia Consolidated Appeal 2013-15
A large number of people in the Horn of Africa have grown up in the midst of armed conflict. They are never far from violence and danger. The abundance of weapons in the region and the constant influx of new arms play a large role in these conflicts. In the report 'Armed and insecure', PAX provides a unique overview of the manner in which armed conflict and the arms trade reinforce each other.
By: Daniel Maxwell, Jeeyon Janet Kim, Nisar Majid
- The present report is submitted pursuant to paragraph 15 of Security Council resolution 2158 (2014), in which the Council requested me to keep it informed of the implementation of the mandate of the United Nations Assistance Mission in Somalia (UNSOM) every 120 days. The report covers major developments that occurred from 1 May to 31 August 2014.
- Brief description of the emergency and impact
The humanitarian situation in Somalia remains dire with drought alerts being sounded. In February, the Food Security and Nutrition Analysis Unit-Somalia (FSNAU)1 and the Famine Early Warning Systems Network (FEWS NET)2, indicated that around 860,000 people would remain in Crisis (IPC Phase 3)3 and higher phases through June 2014. There are reports that over 300,000 malnourished children in Somalia and a total nearing a million people are in need of life-saving help.
Work plan Harmonization for RLRLP cross-border project activities in the Karamoja Cluster June 29th – 4 th July, 2014
The IGAD team, in collaboration with the project preparation teams of the Regional Pastoral Livelihoods Resilience Project (RPLRP), from Kenya and Uganda held a Work plan harmonization workshop in Eldoret, 30th June – 4 th July 2014.
In Syria, government military aircraft targeted rebel-held districts in the northern city of Aleppo, killing at least 15 people according to opposition activists. In parallel, Damascus announced that it had retaken control of the key Damascus – Homs supply highway after gaining ground in the battle for the strategic Qalamoun region. London and Washington decided to suspend all non-lethal assistance to the Syrian opposition fearing that military equipment may fall under the control of Islamic radical groups.
Snapshot 3 - 10 December
In Syria, the conflict has been going on for over 1,000 days, and to date, the war has displaced 6.5 million people internally and forced 2.3 million to cross into neighbouring countries. Meanwhile, Washington indicated that it has been in talks with Islamist opposition factions non-linked to Al-Qaeda, in order to push for a negotiated settlement to the crisis.
In Syria, intensive fighting continued in Aleppo, Ar-Raqqa, Rural Damascus and Homs. Intensive clashes which ignited at the start of the month between Government and opposition groups in the governorate of Lattakia appeared however to have ceased. At the start of the week, the US warned that a military strike against Syria was imminent, following the alleged use of chemical weapons near Damascus on 21 August. By the end of the week, President Obama indicated that he would seek congressional approval of the Congress before undertaking such an action.
Snapshot 12 – 19 August
In Syria, fighting between governmental forces and opposition groups has been concentrated in Aleppo, Deir-ez-Zor, Homs, Lattakia and Rural Damascus this week. Meanwhile, infighting is ongoing within the opposition. As during previous weeks, FSA forces have clashed with Islamist opposition groups on multiple occasions while Kurdish groups continued to fight with Islamist groups in the north of the country. The mass influx of Syrian refugees to neighbouring countries is ongoing. As of 19 August, over 1.9 million Syrians had fled the country.
In Syria, large-scale fighting between opposition and Government forces has been reported across Al-Hassakeh, Ar-Raqqa, Homs, Aleppo, and especially Lattakia and Damascus governorates. Increasing strife between combatants of the FSA and al-Qaeda affiliated Islamic fighters continue to also be reported, especially around Aleppo and its countryside. In addition, as clashes increased between Kurdish armed groups and fighters of the ISIS, the President of Iraqi Kurdistan openly floated the idea of staging an intervention in Syria to support fellow Kurds.
In Syria, Government forces are advancing in Homs and expected to retake opposition-held districts in the short-term, while operations have been ongoing in other major cities, including Aleppo and Damascus. Meanwhile, infighting within opposition forces is spreading between various armed groups. Clashes are continuously reported between Kurdish fighters and al-Qaeda affiliated Islamists near the border with Turkey in Al-Hassakeh and Ar-Raqqa governorates.
Snapshot 22– 29 July
In Syria, despite the start of the Holy Month of Ramadan on 9 July, large-scale operations have been ongoing in several major cities, including Damascus, Homs, Aleppo, and Idlib with regime forces pushing to extend the gains obtained over the past weeks with support of the Lebanese Hezbollah fighters. Infighting within opposition forces has escalated in recent days with clashes reported between various Islamist and more moderate groups, notably between Kurdish fighters and al-Qaeda affiliated Islamists near the border with Turkey in Al-Hassakeh governorate.
In Syria, the regime’s offensive on Homs governorate and city is on-going with artillery and air strikes, displacing 400,000 and leaving an estimated 2,500 and 4,000 civilians trapped in and around the city. Some 2 million people in Government-controlled areas in Aleppo are affected by a siege of opposition forces that is blocking food and medicines from entering several areas. While the UN and the Red Cross have called for a truce during the month of Ramadan, the cease-fire was rejected by the Government.
The year 2012 was a highly productive and strategically important one for our Country Office as well as for our key partners. With a continuing emphasis on bringing transformative change at the grass roots level to the most vulnerable communities across Kenya, we empowered them to build resilience from the ‘inside-out’ so that they could withstand the shocks of drought and economic crisis and bounce back with confidence.
In Syria, the regime’s offensive on Homs governorate and city is on-going with artillery and air strikes being reported. An estimated, 2,500 and 4,000 civilians are allegedly trapped in and around the city. Meanwhile, the number of Syrian refugees in neighboring countries continues to increase and is now approaching 1.75 million people according to UNHCR.
Cullen Hendrix, Henk-Jan Brinkman
Insight & overview: 2012 Annual Report from DRC Horn of Africa & Yemen
Danish Refugee Council Horn of Africa & Yemen looks back at 2012 - a year that stands out in the history of the organisation. The 2012 Annual Report is offering new and detailed insight into programmes and activities in the region.
Summary: 1 June 2013, Singapore - Speech delivered by European Union High Representative for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy Catherine Ashton on "Defending national interests, preventing conflict" at the Shangri-La Dialogue
Snapshot 27 May – 03 June
In Syria, the government military continued its offensive on opposition-controlled Qusayr, a strategic city in Homs province connecting the capital to the Mediterranean coast. Humanitarian agencies expressed alarm over the fate of thousands of civilians still trapped in the city. The UN estimates that over 6.8 million people are in need of humanitarian aid in Syria. While an estimated 5 million people are internally displaced, the number of Syrians registered or awaiting registration in host countries has surpassed 1.6 million.