Horn of Africa Crisis: 2011-2012
The Horn of Africa crisis of 2011-2012 affected 13 million people. The main focus of the crisis was across southern Ethiopia, south-central Somalia and northern Kenya. Regional drought came on top of successive bad rains and rising inflation. It ramped up a chronic livelihoods crisis into a tipping point of potential disaster by putting extreme pressure on food prices, livestock survival, and water and food availability. Armed conflict across the region compounded chronic ecological and economic vulnerability, which escalated the crisis and limited people’s survival and recovery choices. (IASC Real-Time Evaluation of the Humanitarian Response to the Horn of Africa Drought Crisis in Somalia, Ethiopia and Kenya - Synthesis Report)
Appeals & Response Plans
Most read reports
- Under-Secretary-General for Humanitarian Affairs and Emergency Relief Coordinator, Mark Lowcock: Opening Remarks at the Launch of the 2018 Somalia Humanitarian Response Plan and the Resilience and Recovery Framework
- Humanitarian Assistance in Review: East and Central Africa | Fiscal Year (FY) 2008 – 2017
- Looking back to move forward: Building on learning from 2011 to strengthen the 2017 drought response in Somalia: Report from an inter-agency reflection workshop
- Lesson learned? An urgent call for action in the Horn of Africa, January 2017
- Greater Horn of Africa Climate Risk and Food Security Atlas
The overall food security situation has improved but remains very fragile;
Emergency conditions persist in Somalia;
Security is an issue in Somalia and in refugee camps in Kenya and Ethiopia. Access to vulnerable people in border areas is restricted;
Apart from delivering emergency aid, the main challenge for governments and international community is to jointly contribute to building resilience to drought and tackling the underlying structural weaknesses.
Period covered by this Final Report: 15 October 2008 - 31 May 2013
In Syria, Government forces are advancing in Homs and expected to retake opposition-held districts in the short-term, while operations have been ongoing in other major cities, including Aleppo and Damascus. Meanwhile, infighting within opposition forces is spreading between various armed groups. Clashes are continuously reported between Kurdish fighters and al-Qaeda affiliated Islamists near the border with Turkey in Al-Hassakeh and Ar-Raqqa governorates.
• Moderate to heavy rains in March marked an early start to the April-June Gu rainy season, with Gaalkacyo, Eyl, Laas Caanood in Mudug, Nugaal and Bari, Jowhar and Baardheere districts in Southern Central Somalia recording significant downpour. While bringing relief to dry conditions, the intense rains have led to flooding, damaged an estimated 6,397 hectares of crops and displaced about 50,000 people
In 2011, AAR Japan started operation in Kenya, for supporting people suffering from the huge drought in East Africa. Since February 2012, we have repaired the water supply facilities and built new wells in local villages located as far as an eight-hour drive to the east of Nairobi, the capital in Kenya.
Taking action in areas that are left out from support
Summary: The drought response operation was initiated by IFRC in January 2011 as part of a scaled up Somalia Annual Country Plan 2011 to respond to the drought situation in Somaliland and Puntland. The funds secured in early January 2011 enabled International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent (IFRC) and Somali Red Crescent Society (SRCS) to kick start the operation in April 2011. However, the general food security situation in Somalia deteriorated in July 2011 which led the United Nations to declare famine in Southern Somalia.
Nairobi, Kenya – A $1.3 billion per year stream of cash that the people of Somalia depend on for food, shelter, and other necessities is under threat according to a new report from Adeso, the Inter-American Dialogue, and Oxfam released today. Fear of US anti-terror and money laundering laws is leading banks to close critically needed bank accounts of US-based money transfer operators. Used for urgently needed remittances, these accounts are sometimes closed in indiscriminate fashion.
Critical underfunding highlighted in IOM’s Mid-Year Review of humanitarian activities
Switzerland - IOM’s annual mid-year review of humanitarian needs highlights a critical funding shortfall of USD 233.2 million for 2013. IOM has identified funding needs of USD 354.6 million for 2013 in its revised funding requirements as of mid-year.
To date, IOM has received only USD 121.3 million in funding for its humanitarian projects in 22 countries, including Syria and its neighbouring countries.
Snapshot 22– 29 July
The 2011 drought in the Horn of Africa left 13.3 million people in need of humanitarian assistance. CERF funds have been used to address the crisis as rainfall levels diminished towards the end of 2010. More than US$128 million was allocated to drought-affected persons in Djibouti, Ethiopia, Kenya and Somalia in 2011. In 2012, another $20 million, followed by $21 million in 2013, was allocated to the region – mostly through the Underfunded Emergency window. Since 2011, CERF has disbursed a total of $169.8 million to the Horn of Africa.
The 2011 drought in the Horn of Africa left 13.3 million people in need of humanitarian assistance. CERF funds have been used to alleviate the crisis as food insecurity increased due to limited rain fall at the end of 2010. More than US$128 million was allocated to drought-affected persons in Djibouti, Ethiopia, Kenya and Somalia in 2011.
In Syria, despite the start of the Holy Month of Ramadan on 9 July, large-scale operations have been ongoing in several major cities, including Damascus, Homs, Aleppo, and Idlib with regime forces pushing to extend the gains obtained over the past weeks with support of the Lebanese Hezbollah fighters. Infighting within opposition forces has escalated in recent days with clashes reported between various Islamist and more moderate groups, notably between Kurdish fighters and al-Qaeda affiliated Islamists near the border with Turkey in Al-Hassakeh governorate.
One of the aims of European Commission's humanitarian aid actions in Djibouti is to reduce people's vulnerability to droughts and climate - caused disasters. This can be achieved by increasing communities' resilience to respond better to upcoming crises ;
The European Commission also works on improving the food situation in the country as well as on fighting malnutrition and malnutrition - related diseases. Access to clean water and sanitary facilities still needs further development in Djibouti;
Summary: A total of 379 spatially distinct IDP shelter concentrations were identified as of 3 June 2013 within Mogadishu, representing a decrease of 134 IDP sites since the last UNOSAT analysis which used an image from 2 May 2012. An estimate of the total number of IDP structures located in Mogadishu indicates a minimum figure of at least 61,000 mostly informal shelters. The number of IDP camps has significantly reduced in multiple areas of Mogadishu.
The Somalia crisis remains one of the largest and most complex in the world. Moreover, a shortfall in funding jeopardizes efforts to build Somalis‟ resilience to shocks.
Millions of people in the Sahel and the Horn of Africa are still threatened by drought, disappointing harvests, high food prices, climate change and conflict. The Global Humanitarian Assistance report presented today shows that despite all the emergency aid in circulation, vast numbers of people continue to die of starvation. Over the next five years, the Netherlands will therefore invest a total of €40 million in structural solutions to help the local population prevent new crises.
Nairobi (19 July 2013) The United Nations Resident and Humanitarian Coordinator (RC/HC) for Somalia, Philippe Lazzarini, has expressed his appreciation to the Central Emergency Response Fund (CERF) for allocating Somalia US$20 million for underfunded emergencies to support vital humanitarian aid for one year. Somalia was allocated the highest funding out of a total $72 million apportioned to 12 countries categorized as neglected crises around the world.
0 . MAJOR CHANGE SINCE THE PREVIOUS VERSION OF THE HIP
Kenyans for Kenya Turkana Project Commissioned
The Kenya Red Cross Society (KRCS) and the Kenyans for Kenya Steering Committee on Tuesday 16th July; 2013 commissioned an irrigation project in Kaikor area of Turkana County. The project is aimed at providing a permanent solution to the perennial drought experienced in the region through building community resilience and enhancing food security.