Horn of Africa Crisis: 2011-2012
The Horn of Africa crisis of 2011-2012 affected 13 million people. The main focus of the crisis was across southern Ethiopia, south-central Somalia and northern Kenya. Regional drought came on top of successive bad rains and rising inflation. It ramped up a chronic livelihoods crisis into a tipping point of potential disaster by putting extreme pressure on food prices, livestock survival, and water and food availability. Armed conflict across the region compounded chronic ecological and economic vulnerability, which escalated the crisis and limited people’s survival and recovery choices. (IASC Real-Time Evaluation of the Humanitarian Response to the Horn of Africa Drought Crisis in Somalia, Ethiopia and Kenya - Synthesis Report)
Appeals & Response Plans
September 3, 2013, Nairobi/Washington – The number of people in crisis in Somalia is at its lowest since famine was declared in Somalia in 2011, thanks to successive seasons of average to above average rainfall, low food prices and sustained humanitarian response but acute malnutrition continues to pose a threat to hundreds of thousands of children especially in the country’s south, latest findings indicate.
In Syria, intensive fighting continued in Aleppo, Ar-Raqqa, Rural Damascus and Homs. Intensive clashes which ignited at the start of the month between Government and opposition groups in the governorate of Lattakia appeared however to have ceased. At the start of the week, the US warned that a military strike against Syria was imminent, following the alleged use of chemical weapons near Damascus on 21 August. By the end of the week, President Obama indicated that he would seek congressional approval of the Congress before undertaking such an action.
Somalia: Rape and sexual violence a constant threat for displaced women
Women and children living in Somalia’s makeshift camps for displaced people face a high risk of rape and other sexual violence, Amnesty International said today after returning from a research trip to the country.
In Syria, fighting continued in Aleppo, Al-Hasakeh, Dar’a, Damascus, Deir-ez-Zor, Hama, Homs, Idleb, Rural Damascus and Quneitra. A large-scale chemical weapons attack in Ghouta killed hundreds of people, according to opposition groups that blamed the Government on 21 August. After some delay, Damascus allowed UN inspectors to visit the site of the alleged chemical attack while denying being behind the assault. Meanwhile, over 1.9 million Syrians have been registered with UNHCR or are awaiting registration in neighboring countries.
Dadaab, the world’s largest refugee camp, presents an immensely complex information environment. Research carried out by Internews in 2011 identified major communications gaps. A comprehensive baseline survey conducted in 2013 by Internews in Dadaab found that radio is the most trusted source of information in Dadaab and Star FM is the most popular local radio station.
On 20 July 2011, the United Nations declared a famine in parts ofSomalia; the crisis affecting some 3.1 million people, 2.8 million of whom were in southern and central Somalia. The causes? A series of failed rains and a rapid increase in food prices, complicating an already impossible situation characterised by ongoing civil war and insecurity, lack of humanitarian access, politicisation of aid by Al Shabaab and donor policies, and the absence of effective and accountable government.
Vidéo réalisée lors de la conférence « Exchange on Practices and Lessons Learnt on the Resilience in the Horn and the Sahel », le 2 et 3 juillet 2013 à Dakar.
Nairobi, Kenya [ACTED News] – One million people still require aid to meet their basic needs, and 1.7 million people who recently emerged from a crisis could fall back without sustained support. In this alarming context, the UN announced on 16 July a CERF (Central Emergency Response Fund) allocation of $20 million to Somalia, aimed to provide life-saving services to people affected by insecurity, displacement and drought.
What do goats have to do with poverty? To Susan Leshore and her fellow Samburans from rural Kenya, who were affected by the 2011 East African drought, goats can mean the difference between having enough food and potentially losing everything.
By Luke Sypkes, Humanitarian and Emergencies Group, Caritas Australia
Susan, like many people in rural Kenya, doesn’t know how old she is – she guesses about 50 years. She measures the past according to memories of events like ‘the big drought’ that hit in 2011, the worst in the region for 60 years.
Snapshot 12 – 19 August
In Syria, fighting between governmental forces and opposition groups has been concentrated in Aleppo, Deir-ez-Zor, Homs, Lattakia and Rural Damascus this week. Meanwhile, infighting is ongoing within the opposition. As during previous weeks, FSA forces have clashed with Islamist opposition groups on multiple occasions while Kurdish groups continued to fight with Islamist groups in the north of the country. The mass influx of Syrian refugees to neighbouring countries is ongoing. As of 19 August, over 1.9 million Syrians had fled the country.
The Kenya Red Cross Society (KRCS) started its first phase of operations in the IFO 2 Dadaab Refugee Camp as a lead agency offering health services and camp management services from 27th October 2011. Initially, the KRCS set up temporary clinics with outreach services. In 2012, the Society with funding from the African Union, the German Red Cross and Rotary Germany started the construction of a Level 5 Hospital in IFO 2 East which would serve as a referral hospital for all the five existing camps that currently serve close to 500,000 refugees. This brings care much closer.
Period covered by this Ops Update: 5 February 2013 to 30 of June 2013.
Appeal target (current): CHF 12,258,425
Appeal coverage: 85%
1. Executive Summary
Famine conditions were still present in parts of southern Somalia when the 2012 humanitarian appeal for Somalia was launched in December 2011. On 3 February 2012, the famine was declared over, largely due to the delivery of aid under extremely difficult conditions and the exceptional harvest at the start of the year. With carry-over funding from 2011 and continued generous support in the months following the famine, humanitarian actors were able to build on the gains.
In Syria, large-scale fighting between opposition and Government forces has been reported across Al-Hassakeh, Ar-Raqqa, Homs, Aleppo, and especially Lattakia and Damascus governorates. Increasing strife between combatants of the FSA and al-Qaeda affiliated Islamic fighters continue to also be reported, especially around Aleppo and its countryside. In addition, as clashes increased between Kurdish armed groups and fighters of the ISIS, the President of Iraqi Kurdistan openly floated the idea of staging an intervention in Syria to support fellow Kurds.
Created on July 27, 2013 by Anahi.
The overall food security situation has improved but remains very fragile;
Emergency conditions persist in Somalia;
Security is an issue in Somalia and in refugee camps in Kenya and Ethiopia. Access to vulnerable people in border areas is restricted;
Apart from delivering emergency aid, the main challenge for governments and international community is to jointly contribute to building resilience to drought and tackling the underlying structural weaknesses.