Horn of Africa Crisis: 2011-2012
The Horn of Africa crisis of 2011-2012 affected 13 million people. The main focus of the crisis was across southern Ethiopia, south-central Somalia and northern Kenya. Regional drought came on top of successive bad rains and rising inflation. It ramped up a chronic livelihoods crisis into a tipping point of potential disaster by putting extreme pressure on food prices, livestock survival, and water and food availability. Armed conflict across the region compounded chronic ecological and economic vulnerability, which escalated the crisis and limited people’s survival and recovery choices. (IASC Real-Time Evaluation of the Humanitarian Response to the Horn of Africa Drought Crisis in Somalia, Ethiopia and Kenya - Synthesis Report)
Appeals & Response Plans
- MAJOR CHANGE SINCE THE PREVIOUS VERSION OF THE HIP
In order to match the needs and current context in the Horn of Africa, it was decided to enable a transfer of EUR 1 900 000 from the Food Aid Budget Line to the Humanitarian Aid Budget Line.
This change aims at better reflecting the realities of the projects selected in the different countries.
by Mark Lang
Almaz Santa has come a long way since drought in Ethiopia two years ago pushed her to the edge of survival.
Back then she would walk miles every day in a desperate search for firewood to sell to earn money to feed her children.
‘I used to cry out to God as I thought he had forgotten me,’ recalls the mother of six children aged between four and 15.
Thanks to supporters of Tearfund’s emergency appeal for East Africa, our partner the Wolaitta Kale Heywet Church brought Almaz back from the brink.
In Syria, government military aircraft targeted rebel-held districts in the northern city of Aleppo, killing at least 15 people according to opposition activists. In parallel, Damascus announced that it had retaken control of the key Damascus – Homs supply highway after gaining ground in the battle for the strategic Qalamoun region. London and Washington decided to suspend all non-lethal assistance to the Syrian opposition fearing that military equipment may fall under the control of Islamic radical groups.
Kenya’s ‘Turkana-Pokot Drought Management Initiative (DMI)’ was a three-year programme implemented by a consortium of NGOs which aimed to mitigate the effects of climatic shocks among pastoralist communities in north-western Kenya. Oxfam GB was responsible for implementing the livestock component of this programme in three of the most remote pastoralist communities in the northern part of Turkana County. These full and summary reports document the findings of a quasi-experimental impact evaluation carried out in July 2012.
Since the 1990s, armed conflict in Mogadishu and recurring famine in southern Somalia has resulted in the protracted and massive displacement of thousands of families – population movements of up to 20,000 people within a single week into or out of the capital. Since 2007, when fighting between government forces and anti-government militias intensified, an estimated 400,000 people have fled from the war zones in Mogadishu and settled along a 20-kilometre stretch of road leading out of the city.
Snapshot 3 - 10 December
In Syria, the conflict has been going on for over 1,000 days, and to date, the war has displaced 6.5 million people internally and forced 2.3 million to cross into neighbouring countries. Meanwhile, Washington indicated that it has been in talks with Islamist opposition factions non-linked to Al-Qaeda, in order to push for a negotiated settlement to the crisis.
The research findings are also available as a policy brief: “Al-Shabaab engagement with aid agencies”.
Somalia is one of the most dangerous environments in the world for aid workers and humanitarian organisations. One of the largest obstacles to reaching people in need of humanitarian assistance is the militant armed group Al-Shabaab.
Period covered by this Final Report: June 2012 until June 2013.
Appeal target (current): CHF 20,419,397
Appeal coverage: 5%
· This Emergency Appeal was initially launched on 11 June 2012 for CHF 20,419,397 for 12 months to assist 465,844 beneficiaries.
· A DREF (MDRKE022) of CHF 314,208 was allocated in May 2012 from the IFRC DREF to support provision of immediate support to 20,892 persons displaced by floods in West Kenya, Rift Valley and Coast.
The humanitarian crisis in Somalia remains one of the largest and most complex in the world with climatic shocks, armed conflict and protracted displacement. While over 3 million people still require humanitarian assistance, humanitarian access remains extremely challenging.
Strong winds and heavy rains in Puntland leave an unknown number of people dead and thousands affected.
Outlook for food security remains cautious in parts of Somalia due to erratic rains.
Humanitarian air service seeks urgent funding to maintain its support to humanitarian activities.
A recent food security alert by the Famine Early Warning Systems Network (FEWS NET) suggests below average Deyr (October- December) rainfall in Somalia, which could result in elevated food insecurity in agro-pastoral areas of Bakool, Bay and Hiraan regions of Somalia. For Hiraan in particular, which received poor (April-June) rains, the situation could be worse as the harvest was only 35 per cent of the expected production. Humanitarian agencies are preparing contingency plans to meet the anticipated need in these areas.
Into moving boxes went two of my grandmother’s delicate china teacups, family photographs, and our wedding gifts—all the little keepsakes that make a house my home. When my husband and I moved in Nairobi we debated over where we would hang the lovely blue portrait from our favorite Kenyan artist, Michael Musyoka. We walked the grounds and thought about what flowers we might plant. We organized the kitchen and decorated the walls. We unpacked the tea cups, the photographs, the gifts.
By Daniel Maxwell, Bapu Vaitla, Girmay Tesfay, and Nigussie Abadi
Period covered by this Final Report: 5 February 2010 to 5 August 2011.
Appeal target (current): CHF 30,579,088.
Appeal coverage: 17%;
· This Emergency Appeal was launched on 5 February 2010 for CHF 30,579,088 for 12 months to assist 330,621 beneficiaries.
Approximately 870,000 people are experiencing Crisis- and Emergency-level—Integrated Food Security Phase Classification (IPC 3) and IPC4, respectively—food insecurity in Somalia, according to FSNAU, representing the lowest food insecurity levels since the 2011/2012 drought and famine crisis. However, the U.N. warns that recent food security gains are fragile, with nearly 2.3 million additional people still in danger of reverting to Crisis-level food insecurity.
Baltimore, October 21, 2013 — The Dadaab refugee camps in Kenya are currently home to more than 470,000 people. That’s down slightly from the nearly 500,000 living there at the height of the East Africa drought and food crisis two years ago, but still vastly more than the 90,000 people it was built to accommodate.