South Sudan: Food Insecurity - 2015-2018Ongoing
3.9 million people – nearly one in every three people in South Sudan – were severely food insecure and 3.6 million were considered to be ‘stressed’, in September 2015. An estimated 30,000 people were facing catastrophic food insecurity (IPC Level 5) in Unity State, leading to starvation, death, and destitution. (OCHA, 5 Jan 2016)
At the height of the lean season in July 2016, some 4.8 million people – more than one in every three people in South Sudan – were estimated to be severely food insecure. This number is expected to rise as high as five million in 2017. The food security situation is at the most compromised level since the crisis commenced in 2013 - the combination of conflict, economic crisis and lack of adequate levels of agricultural production have eroded vulnerable households ability to cope. More than one million children under age 5 are estimated to be acutely malnourished, including more than 273,600 who are severely malnourished. (OCHA, 13 Feb 2017)
As of January 2017, 3.8 million were estimated in Crisis (IPC Phase 3), Emergency (IPC Phase 4) and Catastrophe (IPC Phase 5). As of February-April 2017, the number of people estimated in need of humanitarian assistance (IPC phase 3 and above) has increased to almost 5 million, out of which 100,000 are facing famine conditions...Famine is declared in Leer and Mayendit counties of Greater Unity State. Famine is likely to happen in Koch County and can be avoided in Panyijiar County only if the humanitarian assistance is delivered as planned. (IPC, 20 Feb 2017)
An estimated 6.01 million (50% of the population) people are expected to be severely food insecure in June-July 2017, compared to 5.5 million (45% of the population) people in May 2017. This is the greatest number of people ever to experience severe food insecurity (IPC Phases 3, 4 and 5) in South Sudan. Famine is no longer occurring in Leer and Mayendit counties, and further deterioration was prevented in Koch and Panyijiar counties of former Southern Unity State as a result of immediate and sustained multi-sector humanitarian assistance delivered to the affected population since March 2017...However, in June-July 2017, approximately 45,000 people will still be facing Humanitarian Catastrophe in Leer, Koch, Mayendit in former Unity State and Ayod County in former Jonglei state based on most likely assumptions of continued armed conflict, food shortages associated with seasonality, and humanitarian assistance delivery constraints...Of great concern is former Greater Jonglei State, where food security is rapidly deteriorating, predominantly in the counties of Ayod, Canal/Pigi, Duk, Nyirol and Uror, which are facing Emergency (IPC Phase 4) acute food insecurity, with Ayod having an estimated 20,000 people experiencing Humanitarian Catastrophe (IPC Phase 5) at least through July 2017. (IPC, 31 May 2017)
In September 2017, 6 million people were in Crisis (IPC Phase 3), Emergency (IPC Phase 4) and Catastrophe (IPC Phase 5), which corresponded to 56% of the total population. As for October to December 2017, the number of people in need of humanitarian assistance (IPC phase 3 and above) are expected to drop to 4.8 million (45% of the total population. However, this figure includes a doubled number of people classified in Emergency (IPC Phase 4) compared to the same time last year, and 25,000 people still experiencing catastrophic conditions and extreme food gaps. (IPC, 6 Nov 2017)
WFP resumed the integrated rapid response mechanism (IRRM) and currently has seven teams deployed in Bilkey, Nyandit, Kurwai, Jaibor, Chuil, Buot and Ulang, providing life-saving food and nutrition assistance to around 96,633 people, including 17,370 children under the age of five. WFP plans to deploy an additional 26 missions in the coming six weeks, targeting close to 400,000. (WFP, 8 Jan 2018)
An estimated 5.3 million people, 48 percent of the population, are currently facing Crisis (IPC Phase 3) or worse acute food insecurity, despite the harvest and continued large-scale assistance. (FEWSNET, 22 Mar 2018)
Extreme food insecurity persists across South Sudan as the lean season progresses, conflict continues to disrupt normal livelihoods, and macroeconomic conditions remain very poor. Of greatest concern in April are Pibor of Jonglei and Kapoeta East of Eastern Equatoria. However, southern and central Unity, northern Jonglei, and Wau County also remain of high concern, and Crisis (IPC Phase 3) or Emergency (IPC Phase 4) acute food insecurity exists in all regions of the country despite ongoing humanitarian assistance. (FEWSNET, 30 Apr 2018)
Based on the September IPC analysis, it is expected that 6.1 million people (59% of the total population) faced Crisis (IPC Phase 3) or worse acute food insecurity at the peak of the lean season (July – August), of whom 47,000 were in Catastrophe (IPC phase 5) and 1.7 million were in Emergency (IPC Phase 4). Food security has improved slightly with the green harvest in September relative to July and August, and further improvements are expected in the post-harvest period between October and December 2018 when the number of people in Crisis (IPC Phase 3) or worse is most likely to reduce to 4.4 million (43% of the total population), with 26,000 in Catastrophe (IPC Phase 5). However, an anticipated earlier than normal start of the lean season will result in an estimated 5.2 million (49% of the total population) people in Crisis (IPC Phase 3) or worse acute food insecurity between January and March 2019, with 36,000 in Catastrophe (IPC Phase 5). These estimates are in the presence of planned humanitarian food assistances. (FEWSNET, 28 Sep 2018)
Food security has continued to improve throughout Somalia since the 2018 Gu. Most northern and central livelihood zones are Stressed (IPC Phase 2), while southern livelihood zones are Minimal (IPC Phase 1) or Stressed (IPC Phase 2). In October, humanitarian assistance continued to prevent worse outcomes in Guban Pastoral and northwestern Northern Inland Pastoral (NIP) livelihood zones, where Crisis! (IPC Phase 3!) and Stressed! (IPC Phase 2!) outcomes persist, respectively. Northwest Agropastoral and most IDP settlements are also in Crisis (IPC Phase 3). FEWSNET, 31 Oct 2018)
Maps & Infographics
Most read reports
- Global Humanitarian Overview 2019
- Accessing South Sudan: Humanitarian Aid in a Time of Crisis
- South Sudan: Food insecurity situation still dire and widespread - IPC Alert, Issue 10, September 2018
- USG Humanitarian Assistance to South Sudan Crisis (Last Updated: 12/07/18)
- EU steps up humanitarian support in Sudan
• Currency Exchange Rate: In September 2018, the average exchange rate in the parallel market in Juba was SSP 215, compared to the highest ever of SSP 310 in June 2018. The rate in the parallel market remained stable from August but depreciated by 18 percent compared to September 2017. The divergence of the parallel market to the official rate in Juba narrowed to 43 percent in September, down from 46 percent in August and 122 percent in June.
JUBA – The United Nations World Food Programme (WFP) has today received an €8 million (US$9 million) contribution from the Kingdom of the Netherlands to improve smallholder farmers’ access to markets by rehabilitating and maintaining roads in South Sudan over the next four years.
• Significant rainfall deficits continue to accumulate in the eastern half of the Horn of Africa as the Deyr season progresses. Deficits are -25 to -100 mm or worse in southern and central Somalia, central and eastern Kenya, and southeastern and other localized parts of Ethiopia.
• Favorable cropping conditions have been maintained in the western sector of the East Africa region, despite an erratic onset of the rainy season and poorly distributed, below-average rainfall amounts in parts of Uganda, Rwanda, Burundi, and western Kenya.
Context and Methodology
Nyal town is located in Northern Panyijiar County, Unity State, along the banks of the Sudd, the third largest swamp in the world. Since the beginning of the crisis, IDPs from Unity and Jonglei States have perceived Nyal as a safe location with ample resources. Recently, Nyal has also become a key location for people travelling to and from nearby islands.
November 20, 2018 (KHARTOUM) - The government of White Nile State on Tuesday said it has dispatched 4 humanitarian caravans to South Sudan.
The semi-official Sudan Media Center (SMC) quoted the director of aid groups department at the Humanitarian Aid Commission in White Nile, Mustafa al-Kamel, as saying the caravans have been dispatched to Upper Nile and Bahr el-Ghazal provinces via the Joda border crossing point.
He pointed out that the caravans contained 160 tons of sorghum, 400 packages of edible oils as well as large quantities of legumes, flour and rice.
• Internal conflicts on the increase: At least 9 million people have been displaced within their borders as a result of inter-communal conflict and violence. This has been most notable in parts of Ethiopia, Somalia, South Sudan and Sudan. This makes conflict, the largest driver of displacement – with children often witnessing or experiencing horrific violence, exploitation and abuse.
• Peace celebrations commemorating the Revitalized Agreement on Resolution of the Conflict in the Republic of South Sudan (R-ARCSS) took place on 31 October in Juba. Participants included Presidents of Sudan, Uganda, Ethiopia, Somalia and the Prime Minister of Egypt, as well as representatives of the African Union, the Intergovernmental Authority on Development (IGAD) and the United Nations.
This Weekly Bulletin focuses on selected acute public health emergencies occurring in the WHO African Region. The WHO Health Emergencies Programme is currently monitoring 53 events in the region. This week’s edition covers key new and ongoing events, including:
Ongoing conflict in Jonglei continued to negatively affect humanitarian needs in the second quarter of 2018. The onset of the peak lean season saw deteriorating food security conditions in many locations across the state.
Clashes between armed actors and pervasive insecurity, particularly in the Greater Akobo area caused displacement among affected communities, negatively impacting the ability of populations to meet their primary needs.
Poverty, food insecurity, undernutrition and income inequality remain high in Kenya, particularly in the arid and semi-arid lands (ASALs). The drought-prone nature of the ASALs has exacerbated vulnerabilities and has led to chronic emergency responses, driven by high food insecurity and acute malnutrition rates.
In October, the number of displaced people continued to rise to 1.97 million people. A total of 32,113 displaced people were registered in Juba’s two Protection of Civilians (PoC) sites, marking an 18 per cent drop since 2016 figures. Almost half of the decrease is due to the relocation of 3,379 people following inter-communal tensions in September. Civilians were reported to have been displaced from Minyori following continued fighting around Yei, Central Equatoria. Of those displaced, more than 629 have been identified in Yei town.
By Batul Sadliwala and Alex de Waal
Risk of Famine (IPC Phase 5) persists in Yemen and South Sudan
Famine (IPC Phase 5) risk persists and substantial scale-up of assistance needed
Lowest new arrivals in 2018 so far, following steady decline since January.
First round of ‘find-and-treat’ nutrition campaign starts in South Kordofan.
Expansion of livelihoods programming for refugees and host communities in White Nile.
TOTAL INTER-AGENCY FUNDING REQUIRED FOR SUDAN UNDER THE REVISED 2018 REGIONAL REFUGEE RESPONSE PLAN (RRRP)
USD 294.8 M Funded 26% 77.1 M
US$51.4 million allocated to support priority activities
The South Sudan Humanitarian Fund has received US$77.5 million as of the 26 October 2018. The contributions include $19.6 million carried over from 2017, refunds ($2.5m) and $55.4 million deposited in 2018 from Sweden ($9.5m), Germany ($9.2m), Netherlands ($9.1m), UK ($8.5m), Belgium ($4.9m), Ireland ($4.8m), Norway ($4.6m), Australia ($2.6m), Switzerland ($1.0m), Canada ($0.6m) and Luxembourg ($0.4m). An additional $8.6 million is expected by the end of the year.