South Sudan: Food Insecurity - 2015-2018Ongoing
3.9 million people – nearly one in every three people in South Sudan – were severely food insecure and 3.6 million were considered to be ‘stressed’, in September 2015. An estimated 30,000 people were facing catastrophic food insecurity (IPC Level 5) in Unity State, leading to starvation, death, and destitution. (OCHA, 5 Jan 2016)
At the height of the lean season in July 2016, some 4.8 million people – more than one in every three people in South Sudan – were estimated to be severely food insecure. This number is expected to rise as high as five million in 2017. The food security situation is at the most compromised level since the crisis commenced in 2013 - the combination of conflict, economic crisis and lack of adequate levels of agricultural production have eroded vulnerable households ability to cope. More than one million children under age 5 are estimated to be acutely malnourished, including more than 273,600 who are severely malnourished. (OCHA, 13 Feb 2017)
As of January 2017, 3.8 million were estimated in Crisis (IPC Phase 3), Emergency (IPC Phase 4) and Catastrophe (IPC Phase 5). As of February-April 2017, the number of people estimated in need of humanitarian assistance (IPC phase 3 and above) has increased to almost 5 million, out of which 100,000 are facing famine conditions...Famine is declared in Leer and Mayendit counties of Greater Unity State. Famine is likely to happen in Koch County and can be avoided in Panyijiar County only if the humanitarian assistance is delivered as planned. (IPC, 20 Feb 2017)
An estimated 6.01 million (50% of the population) people are expected to be severely food insecure in June-July 2017, compared to 5.5 million (45% of the population) people in May 2017. This is the greatest number of people ever to experience severe food insecurity (IPC Phases 3, 4 and 5) in South Sudan. Famine is no longer occurring in Leer and Mayendit counties, and further deterioration was prevented in Koch and Panyijiar counties of former Southern Unity State as a result of immediate and sustained multi-sector humanitarian assistance delivered to the affected population since March 2017...However, in June-July 2017, approximately 45,000 people will still be facing Humanitarian Catastrophe in Leer, Koch, Mayendit in former Unity State and Ayod County in former Jonglei state based on most likely assumptions of continued armed conflict, food shortages associated with seasonality, and humanitarian assistance delivery constraints...Of great concern is former Greater Jonglei State, where food security is rapidly deteriorating, predominantly in the counties of Ayod, Canal/Pigi, Duk, Nyirol and Uror, which are facing Emergency (IPC Phase 4) acute food insecurity, with Ayod having an estimated 20,000 people experiencing Humanitarian Catastrophe (IPC Phase 5) at least through July 2017. (IPC, 31 May 2017)
In September 2017, 6 million people were in Crisis (IPC Phase 3), Emergency (IPC Phase 4) and Catastrophe (IPC Phase 5), which corresponded to 56% of the total population. As for October to December 2017, the number of people in need of humanitarian assistance (IPC phase 3 and above) are expected to drop to 4.8 million (45% of the total population. However, this figure includes a doubled number of people classified in Emergency (IPC Phase 4) compared to the same time last year, and 25,000 people still experiencing catastrophic conditions and extreme food gaps. (IPC, 6 Nov 2017)
WFP resumed the integrated rapid response mechanism (IRRM) and currently has seven teams deployed in Bilkey, Nyandit, Kurwai, Jaibor, Chuil, Buot and Ulang, providing life-saving food and nutrition assistance to around 96,633 people, including 17,370 children under the age of five. WFP plans to deploy an additional 26 missions in the coming six weeks, targeting close to 400,000. (WFP, 8 Jan 2018)
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IOM is implementing a diverse humanitarian response to the ongoing conflict in South Sudan. IOM provides support to hundreds of thousands of internally displaced persons (IDPs)— including those seeking shelter in UN Mission in South Sudan (UNMISS) protection of civilian sites (PoCs)—and other vulnerable populations, including host communities, across the country.
The Responsibility to Protect (R2P) is a global norm, unanimously adopted by heads of state and government at the 2005 UN World Summit, aimed at preventing and halting Genocide, War Crimes, Ethnic Cleansing and Crimes Against Humanity. R2P stipulates that:
Every State has the Responsibility to Protect its populations from the four mass atrocity crimes (Pillar I).
The wider international community has the responsibility to encourage and assist individual States in meeting that responsibility (Pillar II).
Funding required: $23.18 B
Funding received: $936.6 M
Funding percentage: 3.8%
People in need: 128.8 M
People to receive aid: 93.6 M Countries affected: 35
↗ International prices of wheat and maize increased further in February, mainly supported by weather-related concerns and currency movements. Export price quotations of rice also continued to strengthen, although the increases were capped by subsiding global demand for Indica supplies.
↗ In East Africa, in the Sudan, prices of the main staples: sorghum, millet and wheat, continued to increase in February and reached record highs, underpinned by the removal of the wheat subsidies and the strong depreciation of the Sudanese Pound.
High levels of food insecurity persist in the world, due largely to conflicts and to adverse climatic shocks that are taking a toll, particularly in East African and Near East countries, where large numbers of people continue to be in need of humanitarian assistance, a new FAO report notes. Some 37 countries are in need of external assistance for food, unchanged from three months ago, according to the Crop Prospects and Food Situation report issued today.
The Logistics Cluster facilitates coordination of the logistics response in support of the humanitarian community. Furthermore, it provides information management products to improve decision-making of humanitarian organisations in South Sudan. Where logistics gaps are identified, the Logistics Cluster, through its lead agency WFP, acts as a ‘provider of last resort’ by offering Common Logistics Services to support the humanitarian community in their response operations.
Tokyo – The Government of Japan has donated USD 30.5 million to support IOM, the UN Migration Agency, in its 2018 operations – assisting vulnerable migrants such as displaced persons, refugees, returnees and affected communities, in the midst of various conflicts and crises continuing around the world. With this donation, Japan will also support increasing the capacity of various governments in their humanitarian border management efforts.
49,000+ Refugees verified in Yida
18,000+ refugee children enrolled in primary school in Upper Nile
~6,000 children Benefited from Blanket Supplementary Feeding Programme in Doro, Gendrassa and Kaya camps in Upper Nile
INSIDE SOUTH SUDAN
287,375 Refugees in South Sudan as of 28 February 2018.
1.8 million IDPs in South Sudan including 203,980 in UNMISS Protection of Civilians sites as of 22 February 2018
In February 2018, Integrated Phase Classification (IPC) analysis estimated that in the worst case scenario, 6.3 million people, or 57 per cent of the population of South Sudan, would be severely food insecure from February to April 2018. In Unity, Jonglei, Upper Nile, and Central Equatoria, which are affected by recurring outbreaks of violent conflict and displacement, the proportion of people suffering from severe food insecurity ranges from 52 to 62 percent - more than half the states' combined population.
UNICEF and partners supported the release of 311 children (87 girls) associated with armed groups in Yambio, Western Equatoria state – the first release by any armed group in South Sudan in almost three years. These children are being supported to reintegrate back to their communities. This is the first phase of a process that is expected to see 700 children released from armed groups and forces in Yambio in the coming months.
The Humanitarian Coordinator, Alain Noudehou, led a high-level delegation of donors, heads of humanitarian agencies and partners to Leer in the Unity region of South Sudan to see firsthand the plight of the 90,000 people living in the area.
The delegation met with the Governor of Leer, community leaders and aid agencies who are currently assisting tens of thousands of people across the region.
Currency Exchange Rate: The South Sudanese Pound (SSP) has continued to depreciate. In January 2018, the average exchange rate of US Dollar to SSP stood at SSP 211 and SSP 131 in the parallel and official markets, compared to SSP 190 and SSP 127 in the previous month. During the last 12 months, the parallel exchange rate increased from SSP 101 to 211 (110 percent depreciation) per US Dollar. In January, highest divergence (62 percent) between official and parallel exchange rate was observed since 2016.
10,158 South Sudanese refugees arrived in Uganda between the 1st January and 28th of February at an average daily rate of 180 bringing the total number to 1,045,236
Refugees report fleeing primarily out of fear of being killed by fighters from either side of the conflict inside South Sudan. Other reasons of flight include, hunger and lack of social services services.
Despite the ceasefire agreement signed in December 2017 between the warring parties in South Sudan, the humanitarian situation remains unpredictable.
In the world’s 7th riskiest country for child birth, UNICEF and partners are trying to immunize all women of child-bearing age against tetanus, so that mothers and newborns don’t succumb to the vaccine-preventable, disease.
By Pavithra S Rangan