Most read reports
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The disappearance of breeding grounds, reduced habitat diversity, and increased temperature levels leading to higher rates of microbes are some of the ramifications of global warming, as anthropogenic activities continue to increase greenhouse gases, according to Jane Nagayi Kalule Yawe, a lecturer at Gulu University in Uganda.
This study calls for better reporting on
the use of U.S. foreign aid to build up the private sector in developing
countries. It examines three tools for strengthening small and medium-sized
enterprises in the developing world: enterprise funds, equity funds, and
technical assistance from non-governmental organizations.
The three approaches have proven useful and important, and the current challenge is to much better understand both their limitations and their capacities as we seek ways to support the development of private enterprises.
This white paper surveys the legal issues, analyzes current sanctions committee practices, and recommends proposals to strengthen UN targeted sanctions procedures. Section Two examines legal aspects of the issue, with a survey of broad principles, recent legal challenges, and their implications. Section Three describes current procedures and practices in six different sanctions committees. Section Four presents specific recommendations and a range of options for responding to criticisms of current practices and for ensuring fair and clear procedures in implementing UN targeted sanctions.
Seeking to enhance the effectiveness of sanctions
while avoiding excessive suffering to civilian populations or the infliction
of economic damage on third states, this manual provides guidelines for
the creation and implementation of targeted financial sanctions. It offers
two main parts:
- Designing UN Security Council resolutions on targeted financial sanctions
- Implementing targeted financial sanctions at the national level
This document considers the impact of humanitarian
action on recent armed conflicts, evaluating the proposition that humanitarian
initiatives fuel conflict. For this purpose it discusses the following
- Historical perspective
- The conflict connection
- Minimizing the conflict connection
- Humanitarian action and conflict transformation
This document analyses the successful effort
to establish an international treaty to ban landmines, providing a detailed
examination of the dynamics of the process, the key reasons for its success,
and an elaboration on its wider meaning.
In addition, a historical discussion of early campaigns to ban particular weapons such as the dum dum bullet is provided, as well as an assessment of three similar campaigns: the International Criminal Court (ICC), child soldiers, and small arms.
Through an examination of the humanitarian efforts
in Sierra Leone and Rwanda, this report provides a comparative analysis
of the humanitarian challenges. In addition to the provision of maps and
chronologies of major events, the study aims to identify significant lessons
with respect to the organisational, functional and programmatic aspects
Aiming to achieve a more dynamic response to future emergencies, the report gives recommendations to donor governments, national actors, United Nations agencies and NGOs.
This study examines the interface between politics
and humanitarian action in the local, regional and interstate context.
Links between the two are identified and a historical perspective is offered
by reviewing several major humanitarian initiatives that predate the Cold
This paper seeks to assess the adequacy of efforts
to meet the challenge of assisting and protecting people in complex humanitarian
emergencies. For this purpose, it provides discussions on the following
- Upgrading protection by aid organizations: An operations perspective
- Tensions between assistance and protection: A human rights perspective
- Studying up, down and sideways: Towards a research agenda for aid operations
This study examines key UN organisations' understanding
and implementation of their mandate to integrate human rights into their
humanitarian work, as recommended by the 1993 World Conference on Human
Rights and the Vienna Declaration and Programme of Action. The discussion
focuses on policy, operations, interagency relations and leadership.
Based on discussions with practitioners at the headquarters level, some 150 interviews were conducted in New York, Geneva, and Rome during 1999.
Aiming to promote more systematic interaction
with, and input from, the social sciences as a key ingredient in increasing
the effectiveness of humanitarian action, this document explores connections
between the two. Themes discussed include:
- Familiarity with historical and cultural contexts to achieve effective humanitarian action
- Interaction of humanitarian principles and activities with political forces and factors
- Interplay among humanitarian practice, public policy, and social science research
In the context of the Kosovo crisis, this report
analyses the increased role of international military forces in humanitarian
action. Outlining major events and providing recommendations to various
international actors, it specifically looks at the following issues of
interaction of military with humanitarian actors:
- Operational division of labor between the two
- Politicisation of humanitarian action
- Tensions between the two institutional cultures
- Implications of the Kosovo experience for the future
Exploring the relationships between emergency
and development assistance as a challenge to effective programming, this
report has numerous implications for how aid agencies understand their
tasks, how they relate to other institutions, how they train their staffs,
and how they evaluate and learn from their work.
The report is based on wide-ranging conversations with many policymakers, aid managers, and frontline practitioners, as well as draws on a companion study on UNICEF's experience with transition planning in Africa.
This guide provides a summary of the principal
applicable provisions of human rights law and, to a lesser extent, of humanitarian
and refugee law. Chapters are provided on:
- Historical background and introduction to international human rights law
- Regional human rights instruments
- Themes in the laws of armed conflicts overlapping with human rights law
- Major provisions of international refugee law and provisions affecting IDPs
- Universality and indivisibility of human rights
Viewing assistance and protection as complementary
rather than competitive activities and arguing for a combined approach,
this paper seeks to provide aid personnel with an analytical framework
for understanding the protection challenge.
- International geopolitical context of today's humanitarian action
- Practical strategies for protecting imperiled refugees, IDPs and other vulnerable groups
- Dilemmas inherent mounting aid operations among belligerents and criminals
- Challenge of improving protection in the future
Concerned about the negative humanitarian consequences
of multilateral sanctions calling for reform, this report offers recommendations
to the UN system for ameliorating adverse humanitarian consequences of
sanctions and making their implementation more effective and accountable.
This study analyses the strengths and weaknesses
of the coordination effort of the international community in three major
crises: Afghanistan, Mozambique and Rwanda.
While focusing primarily on the approaches taken by the UN, including both the political-military and the humanitarian-development sides of the organisation, the interactions between the UN and NGOs are also explored.