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11 Dec 2009 description

The disappearance of breeding grounds, reduced habitat diversity, and increased temperature levels leading to higher rates of microbes are some of the ramifications of global warming, as anthropogenic activities continue to increase greenhouse gases, according to Jane Nagayi Kalule Yawe, a lecturer at Gulu University in Uganda.

01 May 2006 description

This study calls for better reporting on the use of U.S. foreign aid to build up the private sector in developing countries. It examines three tools for strengthening small and medium-sized enterprises in the developing world: enterprise funds, equity funds, and technical assistance from non-governmental organizations.

The three approaches have proven useful and important, and the current challenge is to much better understand both their limitations and their capacities as we seek ways to support the development of private enterprises.

01 Mar 2006 description

This white paper surveys the legal issues, analyzes current sanctions committee practices, and recommends proposals to strengthen UN targeted sanctions procedures. Section Two examines legal aspects of the issue, with a survey of broad principles, recent legal challenges, and their implications. Section Three describes current procedures and practices in six different sanctions committees. Section Four presents specific recommendations and a range of options for responding to criticisms of current practices and for ensuring fair and clear procedures in implementing UN targeted sanctions.

01 Jan 2001 description

This document considers the impact of humanitarian action on recent armed conflicts, evaluating the proposition that humanitarian initiatives fuel conflict. For this purpose it discusses the following main issues:

- Historical perspective
- The conflict connection
- Minimizing the conflict connection
- Humanitarian action and conflict transformation

01 Jan 2001 description

Seeking to enhance the effectiveness of sanctions while avoiding excessive suffering to civilian populations or the infliction of economic damage on third states, this manual provides guidelines for the creation and implementation of targeted financial sanctions. It offers two main parts:

- Designing UN Security Council resolutions on targeted financial sanctions
- Implementing targeted financial sanctions at the national level

01 Nov 2000 description

This document analyses the successful effort to establish an international treaty to ban landmines, providing a detailed examination of the dynamics of the process, the key reasons for its success, and an elaboration on its wider meaning.

In addition, a historical discussion of early campaigns to ban particular weapons such as the dum dum bullet is provided, as well as an assessment of three similar campaigns: the International Criminal Court (ICC), child soldiers, and small arms.

01 Jul 2000 description

This study examines the interface between politics and humanitarian action in the local, regional and interstate context. Links between the two are identified and a historical perspective is offered by reviewing several major humanitarian initiatives that predate the Cold War.

01 Jul 2000 description

Through an examination of the humanitarian efforts in Sierra Leone and Rwanda, this report provides a comparative analysis of the humanitarian challenges. In addition to the provision of maps and chronologies of major events, the study aims to identify significant lessons with respect to the organisational, functional and programmatic aspects of coordination.

Aiming to achieve a more dynamic response to future emergencies, the report gives recommendations to donor governments, national actors, United Nations agencies and NGOs.

01 May 2000 description

This paper seeks to assess the adequacy of efforts to meet the challenge of assisting and protecting people in complex humanitarian emergencies. For this purpose, it provides discussions on the following issues:

- Upgrading protection by aid organizations: An operations perspective
- Tensions between assistance and protection: A human rights perspective
- Studying up, down and sideways: Towards a research agenda for aid operations

01 Feb 2000 description

This study examines key UN organisations' understanding and implementation of their mandate to integrate human rights into their humanitarian work, as recommended by the 1993 World Conference on Human Rights and the Vienna Declaration and Programme of Action. The discussion focuses on policy, operations, interagency relations and leadership.

Based on discussions with practitioners at the headquarters level, some 150 interviews were conducted in New York, Geneva, and Rome during 1999.

01 Jan 2000 description

In the context of the Kosovo crisis, this report analyses the increased role of international military forces in humanitarian action. Outlining major events and providing recommendations to various international actors, it specifically looks at the following issues of interaction of military with humanitarian actors:

- Operational division of labor between the two
- Politicisation of humanitarian action
- Tensions between the two institutional cultures
- Implications of the Kosovo experience for the future

01 Jan 2000 description

Aiming to promote more systematic interaction with, and input from, the social sciences as a key ingredient in increasing the effectiveness of humanitarian action, this document explores connections between the two. Themes discussed include:

- Familiarity with historical and cultural contexts to achieve effective humanitarian action
- Interaction of humanitarian principles and activities with political forces and factors
- Interplay among humanitarian practice, public policy, and social science research

01 Jan 1999 description

Viewing assistance and protection as complementary rather than competitive activities and arguing for a combined approach, this paper seeks to provide aid personnel with an analytical framework for understanding the protection challenge.

- International geopolitical context of today's humanitarian action
- Practical strategies for protecting imperiled refugees, IDPs and other vulnerable groups
- Dilemmas inherent mounting aid operations among belligerents and criminals
- Challenge of improving protection in the future

01 Jan 1999 description

This guide provides a summary of the principal applicable provisions of human rights law and, to a lesser extent, of humanitarian and refugee law. Chapters are provided on:

- Historical background and introduction to international human rights law
- Regional human rights instruments
- Themes in the laws of armed conflicts overlapping with human rights law
- Major provisions of international refugee law and provisions affecting IDPs
- Universality and indivisibility of human rights  

01 Jan 1999 description

Exploring the relationships between emergency and development assistance as a challenge to effective programming, this report has numerous implications for how aid agencies understand their tasks, how they relate to other institutions, how they train their staffs, and how they evaluate and learn from their work.

The report is based on wide-ranging conversations with many policymakers, aid managers, and frontline practitioners, as well as draws on a companion study on UNICEF's experience with transition planning in Africa.

01 Jan 1998 description

Concerned about the negative humanitarian consequences of multilateral sanctions calling for reform, this report offers recommendations to the UN system for ameliorating adverse humanitarian consequences of sanctions and making their implementation more effective and accountable.

01 Jan 1996 description

This study analyses the strengths and weaknesses of the coordination effort of the international community in three major crises: Afghanistan, Mozambique and Rwanda.

While focusing primarily on the approaches taken by the UN, including both the political-military and the humanitarian-development sides of the organisation, the interactions between the UN and NGOs are also explored.