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This report considers the tools and processes that DPKO and DFS currently use to assess the performance of senior personnel, individual units and peacekeeping operations, and proposes a methodology for reorganizing these tools into a single overarching comprehensive planning, reporting and performance assessment framework.
We argue for a shared analytical framework for performance assessment, across the UN system, and show how the terminology used by the United Nations Evaluation Group can be applied in peacekeeping operations.
On 18 March a Challenges Forum Research Seminar took place in Oslo, hosted by the Norwegian Institute of International Affairs (NUPI) in association with the UN Police Division. In three separate sessions it examined the evolution of UN police peacekeeping; transnational organized crime and strategic perspectives on police capacity-building.
The role of civilians in UN peacekeeping and peacebuilding missions has shifted from a peripheral support role to the core of contemporary peacekeeping and peacebuilding missions, and the number of civilians have steadily increased over the years to approximately 22,000 in 2010. Civilians now constitute 20% of UN peacekeepers, and approximately 60% of the top twenty civilian contributing countries are from the Global South.
Whilst the UN finds it difficult to identify candidates in certain specialised categories, in general it has an oversupply of candidates.
This literature review offers a general overview of policy-related and theoretical innovations in disarmament, demobilization and reintegration (DDR) over the past decade. Drawing on an extensive review of academic and prescriptive contributions, it teases out key trends in the character and shape of DDR activities. If detects a shift from minimalist (security-first) interventions preoccupied with military and police priorities to maximalist (development-oriented) activities in the present era.
The Comprehensive- or Integrated Approach will be one of the main guiding principles for future United Nations and African Union peace and stability operations. It is thus important that the various actors that will participate in such operations, or that will work alongside them, understand these approaches. This paper introduces the Comprehensive- and Integrated Approaches, and explores the training implications of these approaches for African Union, European Union and United Nations personnel, the humanitarian community as well as those communities hosting such missions.
Although the Protection of Civilians (PoC) today is largely embedded in the UN system as a whole, there are a number of issues still critical to address at the institutional level for the PoC to inform a shared culture of protection effectively.
The policies of the UN, the World Bank, OECD-DAC and most bilateral donors have converged around a liberal peacebuilding model, where rule of law, market economy and democracy are seen as central to build a lasting peace. There are also procedural principles that are included in this consensus that stipulates how to proceed to build liberal democracies. The first principle is that external actors need to respect and secure local ownership.
The scope of protection in peace operations has widened in the last decades in an effort to meet the challenges of contemporary war fare. As a response to these trends, broader peacekeeping mandates have been designed in attempt to include a widening concept of the Protection of Civilians (PoC). In the present report, we outline the main challenges that must be met for the PoC in peacekeeping operations to be effective. First, we address the understanding of "protection" prevalent in UN documents today.
This paper focuses on the World Bank and its relevance to conflicts, peacebuilding and post-conflict reconstruction. It relates to the international trend of increasingly more efforts put into inter-agency cooperation, multi-functional operations and policy harmonization - all of which come as a response to a new understanding of international conflicts and crises, and how best to respond to and solve them. This implies operations spanning the traditionally separate development, security and humanitarian segments.
This report analyses the coherence and coordination dilemma in peacebuilding systems, with special reference to the UN integrated missions concept. It argues that all peacebuilding agents are interdependent in that they cannot individually achieve the goal of the overall peacebuilding system. Pursuing coherence helps to manage the interdependencies that bind the peacebuilding system together, and coordination is the means through which individual peacebuilding agents can ensure that they are connected to the overall strategic framework process that binds the peacebuilding system together.
While western foreign policy, security and media attention was on Iraq, Afghanistan and the Balkans over the last decade, Africa emerged as the major arena for United Nations (UN) peace operations. Of the 18 peace operations currently managed by the UN, 8 are in Africa, of which 6 are large complex peace operations. This explains why 75% of the approximately 100,000 military, police and civilian UN peacekeepers currently deployed can be found in Africa. The emphasis on Africa is also reflected in the UN peacekeeping budget.
UN peace operations have become more complex
since the end of the 1990s. In most operations the UN has been mandated
to organise elections and support state-building. Only in very few cases,
however, has democratisation been an officially articulated task in Security
Council mandates - despite the stress often placed on democratisation
in high-level policy documents. This indicates ambiguity within the UN
system as to whether the rhetoric on democratisation expressed in key UN
reports is in fact meant to be translated into the guiding principles in
UN peace operations.
The paper discusses the impact of corruption on the probability of violent conflict events and traces the shifts in the composition of corrupt transactions during and in the aftermath of violent conflicts. So far there has been little interaction between empirical corruption research and the empirical research into civil wars. By bringing the two strands of research together and combining their results, the author claims that anomalies arise that would have been difficult to detect within each field in isolation.