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This report summarizes the research findings of the Research Partnership on Postwar Statebuilding (RPPS), a collaborative research project of thirteen scholars from six countries who have sought to disentangle and scrutinize some of the key dilemmas of statebuilding. The contributors to this project believe that improving the effectiveness of statebuilding as a method of postwar peace consolidation requires more than simply identifying "lessons learned" from previous missions.
In a series of Working Papers, IPA has
asked leading experts to undertake a mapping exercise, presenting an assessment
of critical challenges to human and international security. The Working
Papers have three main objectives: to advance the understanding of these
critical challenges and their interlinkages; to assess capacities to cope
with these challenges and to draw scenarios for plausible future developments;
and to offer a baseline for longer-term research and policy development.
The Middle East today faces a variety of acute crises, in addition to longer-term trends that also contribute to the exacerbation of the profound insecurity and instability pervading the region. A seismic shift in regional constellations has seen the emergence of four epicenters of conflict: Israel-Palestine, Iraq, Syria- Lebanon, and Iran. Globalization has also contributed to a reshaping of the political landscape in the region, and has affected the internal dynamics within Middle Eastern states, not least in terms of the rise of political Islamists.
The focus of this paper is on conflicts within states. These range from the full scale armed conflict of a
In October 2003, a report to the US Department
of Defense received wide public attention for presenting
a grim future scenario with warring states and massive social disturbance as a result of dramatic climate change. Although not intended to be a prediction, the authors nevertheless argued the plausibility of a
scenario for rapid climate change which could result in a significant drop in the human carrying capacity of the earth's environment-food, water, and energy shortages, as well as extreme weather patterns. In turn,
New Challenges for Peacekeeping: Protection,
Peacebuilding and the "War on Terror" reviews the history and recent
increase in demand for peacepeeking operations and presents policy options
for the future.
This paper offers a thorough analysis of the main challenges facing those engaged in conflict resolution today, both normative and practical.
Résumé des recommandations
En 2003, le Comité des Chefs d'état-major de l'Union africaine (UA) a relancé les efforts pour créer une Force africaine en attente (FAA), composante essentielle de l'architecture africaine de paix et de sécurité. Des progrès importants ont été faits au niveau conceptuel durant la phase I des travaux (2005-2006). Alors que la phase II est sur le point de démarrer, l'expérience de la Mission de l'UA au Soudan (MUAS) permet de tirer des enseignements utiles qui
Summary of Recommendations
This paper reviews the past attempts at
peacebuilding, and while acknowledging progress, discusses a series
of chronic weaknesses in international peace efforts. They also point to
more fundamental questions about the complexity of post-conflict transitions,
the mismatch between expectations for rapid recovery and processes that
have historically taken considerably longer, and the crucial issue of state-society
relations as well as the types of state institutions needed to sustain
peace, especially in poorer countries where, not coincidentally, most armed
Small arms and light weapons kill at least 300,000 people a year, in both conflict and non-conflict situations, and injure or disable thousands more. Small arms are the weapons of choice of warring parties- government armies, paramilitaries, rebel forces, or even terrorists-and in recent wars they account for between 60 and 90 percent of direct conflict deaths, depending on the nature and intensity of the fighting. In non-war settings small arms represent one of the international agenda.
The Middle East is perhaps the world's
most crucial region: economically and strategically, the Middle East
occupies a top rank on the international agenda, with significance far beyond its geographical bounds.
Africa is grappling with several difficult security challenges. These difficulties result not only from the magnitude of these challenges, but also from the lack of capacity of African states and organizations to respond quickly and effectively to them.
The Caucasus and Central Asia - eight countries of the former Soviet Union stretching to the south of Russia and to the west of China - form a chain of weak states, vulnerable to conflict, extremism, and spillover from potential instability in the Middle East, Iran and Afghanistan. Once on the path of the Silk Road, these countries are still transit routes in the world economy rather than major economic players.
One major trend in the field of peace operations
over the last five or six years has been the increase in cooperation among
international organisations involved in peace operations. This cooperation
is more or less institutionalised and continues to develop in varying degrees
at the headquarter level and in the field. This trend finds its rationale
necessity of burdensharing in a field where the needs are tremendous; international organisations do compete in peace operations, but are also willing to collaborate, drawing on their comparative advantages and complementarity.
This note summarizes discussions among
some forty participants from permanent missions to the United Nations,
the Department of Peacekeeping Operations, the Department of Political
Affairs, the European Union, NATO, and select donor capitals at a seminar
held in New York on 20 February 2006. It was the one in a series of activities
designed to further key items on the agenda of the September 2005 World
Summit through practical
dialogue among policymakers and practitioners.
The United Nations (UN) plays an important role in legitimizing international action, including that taken through and by regional organizations (ROs). But in most conflict cases, the UN will not be the main operational implementer of solutions. The lead will be taken by others: major donors, international financial institutions (IFIs), and ROs. A "grand coalition" of actors will need to be involved in any conflict management or resolution effort, combining three success factors: a) sufficient power; b) enough money; and c) broad legitimacy.