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31 Dec 1999 description

Given the character of post-cold-war refugee situations, including complex humanitarian crises, the repatriation of persons who have had their asylum application examined in a fair procedure and have been rejected or who are no longer in need of international protection acquires new dimensions. Returning home may not only fulfill the aspirations of those once forced to flee, but also generally constitutes a positive outcome of an abnormal situation caused by involuntary displacement.

31 Dec 1999 description

On the basis of the archives of the International Committee of the Red Cross, Isabelle Vonèche Cardia analyses the action taken by the humanitarian organization during the events in Hungary in 1956 and subsequently into the 1960s.

15 Dec 1999 description

The above image shows differences from long-term average (1982-1999) of the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) for Africa, December 1999. NDVI is simply a measure of vegetation "greenness". This data is used to asses levels of vegetation stress or vigor (productivity). Areas color coded as green show above normal NDVI levels, yellow - near  ormal/normal or no change, browns and reds shows below normal NDVI (drought). For December 1999, areas in N.W.

01 Dec 1999 description

Forced Migration Review provides a forum for the regular exchange of practical experience, information and ideas between researchers, refugees and internally displaced people, and those who work with them. It is published three times a year in English, Spanish and Arabic by Refugee Studies Center/ University of Oxford in association with the Global IDP Project/ Norwegian Refugee Council.

Issue 6 includes a feature section on the art and culture of displaced communities.


- Introduction: culture in exile

01 Dec 1999 description
report UN Children's Fund

En este manual se presenta información de una manera sencilla para organizarnos y convivir más agradablemente. Sobre todo nos da recomendaciones importantes que debemos respetar y cumplir para evitar enfermedades, accidentes y riesgos de morir. Su contenido nos orienta al bienestar de nuestras ninas y ninos que son quienes más expuestos están a sufrir enfermedades.

No es fácil la vida para tantas personas reunidades en un solo lugar, por lo tanto tenemos esforzarnos para lograr una convivencia tranquila y satisfactoria.

01 Dec 1999 description
report World Bank

Outlining some of the challenges of expanding the space for peace and the strategies to achieve such a goal, this article points to a way to conceptualize peace and analyze the role of the international community in resolving civil wars. For this purpose, it looks at the following:

-  What is peace?
-  UN Peacebuilding: An evolving concept
-  Links between peacemaking, peacekeeping, and peacebuilding
-  Strategic peacebuilding
-  Maximizing the space for peace
-  Conclusion: Persistent challenges of implementation

01 Dec 1999 description

This document examines the imposition of economic sanctions in the context of the increasing frequency with which the international community has resorted to them as well as their humanitarian consequences.

For this purpose, it examines the legal framework within which sanctions may be imposed, legal limitations on their imposition and policy reasons for calling for limitations on the Security Council's exercise of its power to impose sanctions.

01 Dec 1999 description

This document seeks to provide a coherent framework of general principles and practical guidelines for effective planning, management, implementation and monitoring of disarmament, demobilization and reintegration in a peacekeeping environment.

It sets out guiding principles drawn from lessons learned and provides practical guidelines and procedures on how to plan, implement, monitor and coordinate the phases and components of a voluntary disarmament, demobilization and reintegration process.

01 Dec 1999 description

The arrest of Augusto Pinochet in the United Kingdom has focused attention on a little used provision of international law - the universal jurisdiction rule. This rule allows the prosecution of those responsible for war crimes or crimes against humanity in the courts of any country, regardless of where or when the crimes were committed and the nationality of the victims or the accused. If applied effectively and fairly, the universal jurisdiction rule could be an extremely important tool for combating the most serious human rights abuses.

01 Dec 1999 description

In the form of seven questions a presentation of international humanitarian law and a general overview of what parliamentarians can do to ensure respect for it. To apply international humanitarian law, parliamentarians first have to understand it and the importance of compliance with it.

In seven sections the measures to be taken to respect and ensure respect for international humanitarian law. Each measure is presented following the same outline:

01 Dec 1999 description

Notions of individual duties and responsibilities have recently attracted increasing attention. Calls have been made for a "global ethic" that would set minimum standards to guide human behaviour. Though ndividual duties and human rights are closely related, it is sometimes argued that an unbalanced focus on human rights needs to be corrected.

This short publication aims to contribute to this debate by collating and organising in a readable way the various references to notions of individual duties and responsibilities in international human rights standards.

01 Dec 1999 description

This paper outlines the policy of the Inter Agency Standing Committee of the United Nations on the protection of internally displaced persons (IDPs). Aiming to develop a joint policy of the UN humanitarian agencies as well as to broadly outline major elements of the field of protection in internal displacement situations, it examines the following issues:

- Nature of protection for Internally Displaced Persons
- Strategic areas for protection
- Responsibilities for action
- Process for implementing the Collaborative Approach

01 Dec 1999 description
report UN Children's Fund

The annual report on the lives of children world-wide examines the progress made over the last decade in meeting the goals established at the 1990 World Summit for Children.  It includes the following sections:

- Call to leadership by governments, UN agencies, civil society and private sector
- Obstacles: HIV/AIDS, armed conflict and violence, poverty and gender discrimination
- Early childhood care, quality education, participation and development for adolescents
- Individuals distinguished by their work on behalf of children

30 Nov 1999 description

Los servicios como el abastecimiento de agua y el alcantarillado son vulnerables a los desastres; las instalaciones se pueden dañar, las tuberías se pueden romper y las operaciones se pueden interrumpir por cortes de energía eléctrica. Después de los desastres, el agua se convierte en el bien más importante para la población afectada y la escasez o contaminación de este recurso puede tener consecuencias muy graves sobre la salud pública.

08 Nov 1999 description
report UN General Assembly

GA/EF/2889 - 19991108
Speakers In Debate On Disaster-Reduction Decade Stress ‘Indissoluble’ Link of Prevention, Sustainable Development

It was wrong to believe that natural disasters were single physical events with catastrophic consequences; they were as much societal as physical events, the Director of the Disaster Reduction Division of the Department of Humanitarian Affairs told the Second Committee (Economic and Financial) this morning as it considered the International Decade for Natural Disaster Reduction (IDNDR).

03 Nov 1999 description

These Tropical Storm Tracks are charts and projections of severe storm and hurricane/typhoon movement in the Atlantic, Pacific, and Indian Ocean areas. They are updated every three hours at approximately 00:45, 03:45, 06:45, 09:45, 12:45, 15:45, 18:45, and 21:45 GMT* (02:45, 05:45, 08:45, 11:45, 14:45, 17:45, 20:45, and 23:45 HST).
All plotted times are GMT.

01 Nov 1999 description

This issue concentrates on Kosovo with articles on the current situation, the challenges to coordination faced by NGO's in this region, an evaluative study on the international response to Kosovo and lessons learned from the disaster. Information on the impacts of the disaster on Albania and post NATO Serbia can also be found here.

01 Nov 1999 description

Questioning the validity of sanctions against Iraq, this report provides a wide range of accounts relating to their effects, reflecting both private and professional experiences. Covering a variety of relevant issues, discussions include examinations of the following:

- Health
- NGO opportunities, options and constraints regarding Iraq
- Society and Culture
- Weapons of mass destruction
- Depleted uranium
- International politics

01 Nov 1999 description

This paper reviews the impact of trade embargoes on health, health services and food security, drawing on data available from Cuba, Haiti and Iraq. It reviews:

- Political motivations of increased use of sanctions in the 1990s
- Current impact measurement attempts
- Weaknesses in the choice of indicators and the measurement methodology

01 Nov 1999 description

Sub-Saharan Africa, the epicenter of the AIDS pandemic, is threatened by such reversals of long-term development efforts as sharply reduced life expectancy and increased infant mortality rates. More than 80% of AIDS deaths have occurred in Africa since the pandemic began, threatening the survival of already impoverished households.