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There are eleven weeks to go until the globally synchronized switch from the trivalent to bivalent oral polio vaccine, an important milestone in achieving a polio-free world. Read more here.
The WHO Executive Board is meeting this week, reviewing the report on polio eradication.
On 21 January, Syria passed two years without a reported case of polio despite the conflict which has affected the delivery of health services, including childhood vaccinations.
Looking back at 2015 and ahead at 2016: a wrap-up of the year shows fewer cases in fewer places than ever before. The report on the status of polio eradication to WHO's Executive Board also summarizes the progress on the Polio Endgame Plan, and on Resolution WHA68.3, adopted by the World Health Assembly (WHA) in May 2015.
The year ends with real – and fragile – progress: the longest stretch in history without wild poliovirus in Africa, large outbreaks stopped in the Middle East and the Horn of Africa, a certified polio-free South East Asia and no wild poliovirus type 3 for over 2 years. This will be the last weekly update of 2014.
In the north of Madagascar, supplementary immunization activities are planned for December in response to the outbreak of circulating vaccine derived poliovirus. National Immunization Days are planned for January. The aim is to boost immunity across the country against all strains of poliovirus using trivalent oral polio vaccine.
For the first time ever, only 1 case of wild poliovirus has been reported in Africa in the last 4 months. The case had onset of paralysis on 11 August in Somalia.
In response to the outbreak of circulating vaccine-derived poliovirus (cVDPV) in South Sudan, over 19,000 children were vaccinated last week in Bentiu Poc, where the two cases were reported. Outbreak response plans are in place to hold three rounds of supplementary immunization activities (SIAs) in high risk areas to stop transmission of the virus.
- Three wild poliovirus type 1 (WPV1) cases were reported from South Sudan this week. Genetic sequencing is underway to determine the origin of the isolated viruses and possible relation to the ongoing Horn of Africa outbreak. The cases are from North Bahr El Gazal state (close to the border to Sudan) and Eastern Equatoria state (close to the border with Kenya and Uganda). The cases have triggered a full outbreak response from the Global Polio Eradication Initiative (GPEI) operational perspective.
1. Every country with persistent polio transmission, with the exception of India and Angola, has had more cases so far in 2011 than they had by the same time last year. Chad, Afghanistan and DR Congo have already exceeded their entire 2010 total.
2. The rate of occurrence of new outbreaks serves as an ongoing reminder that many countries in the world are under threat from the ease with which polio could be imported across their borders.
On 25 August 2011, a Kenyan child was struck with paralysis due to type 1 wild poliovirus (WPV1). This most recent case of WPV is closely linked genetically not only to this transmission in Uganda in 2010, but also to cases in Kenya in 2009, signifying that this chain of transmission has persisted for at least 24 months.
Given gaps in surveillance performance, it is difficult to say with certainty whether circulation of the virus persisted in either Uganda or Kenya.
FACTS & FIGURES
- There have been 874 cases globally this year (794 type 1 and 80 type 3), compared with 1,503 cases at this time last year (464 type 1 and 1,039 type 3).
- 20 countries have reported cases in 2010, compared with 23 at this time last year.
Pakistan - polio infrastructure supports flood relief effort: Polio eradication staff and resources are being used to help in the response to the devastating floods affecting Pakistan. Polio epidemiologists and surveillance officers in the worst-affected areas of North West Frontier Province (NWPF, now known as Khyber Pakhtunkhwa) and Punjab are equipped with vehicles, radio equipment, satellite phones, vital medicines and potable water tanks.
- Executive Summary
FOR the Global Polio Eradication Initiative (GPEI), 2009 was a pilot year: an irony for a 20-year effort, but one that breathed innovation and fresh thinking into the initiative. At the beginning of the year, poliovirus survived in parts of four countries and was causing a large-scale international outbreak for the second time in five years. Poliovirus had - for the first time - re-established transmission in several countries.
Step towards targets in new polio eradication strategy
28 July 2010, Atlanta, Evanston, Geneva, New York - On Friday, 30th July, the Horn of Africa is again polio-free, with Sudan, Ethiopia, Kenya and Uganda having reported no wild poliovirus cases for more than a year.
* Tajikistan has launched its response to a large wild poliovirus type 1 (WPV1) outbreak, with a national immunization activity being launched on 1 May in Dushanbe, the capital. As of this week, 32 WPV1 cases have been confirmed. For full details, see 'Tajikistan' section.
* At the T20 cricket world cup in St Lucia, the Indian and Afghanistan cricket teams came together at a media event to urge parents to immunize their children.
Polio partners commend new measures by Government of Southern Sudan
Emergency measures have been launched by the Government of Southern Sudan to stop a polio outbreak spreading across the Horn of Africa. Previously restricted to Southern Sudan and western Ethiopia, the outbreak has this year spread to Kenya, Uganda and northern Sudan.
- Total number of cases from 1 June 2008 to 7 April 2009:
- Countries infected: Sudan (Southern and Northern), Ethiopia. Kenya and Uganda.
- In 2003-2005, an outbreak of polio from the Horn of Africa infected countries as far away as Indonesia.
- Rapid response with high-quality immunization campaigns (according to the World Health Assembly resolution
An outbreak of polio in the Horn of Africa threatens Ethiopia, Sudan, Kenya, and Uganda, with a high risk of further international spread.