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24 Oct 2006 description



- Congolese experience of Belgian rule largely as predatory.

- Colonial policy based on indirect rule, a system of "double citizenship"; coexistence of civic (racial) &tribal (ethnic) law as well as the principles of "ethnic citizenship" which hardens ethnic identity.

- Colonial economic demands lead to internal migrations in Congo & influx of Rwandaphones from Belgian colonies of Rwanda & Burundi into Kivus, threatening rights of autochthones.

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