Appeals & Response Plans
- Sudan: Floods - Jul 2018
- Sudan: Acute Watery Diarrhoea (AWD) Outbreak - Jul 2017
- Sudan: Floods - Jun 2017
- Sudan: Floods - Jun 2016
- Sudan/South Sudan: Measles Outbreak - Mar 2015
- Sudan: Floods - Jul 2014
- Sudan: Yellow Fever Outbreak - Nov 2013
- Sudan: Flash Floods - Aug 2013
- Sudan: Yellow Fever Outbreak - Oct 2012
- Sudan: Floods - Jun 2012
Most read reports
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- Disease outbreak news: Chikungunya – Sudan, 15 October 2018
- Health Ministry declares chikunguya outbreak in Kassala
As the world inches closer towards a polio-free future, finding and closing remaining gaps in national health system capacities to pick up traces of the poliovirus is critical. Only three countries remain on the global endemic list – Afghanistan, Pakistan and Nigeria – but the threat of poliovirus resurgence remains very real, particularly for countries with a history of importation of poliovirus from these endemic areas.
A new approach is helping to improve Sudan’s ability to identify the poliovirus and remain polio-free, despite challenges
It starts with a sick child, whose arms or legs have suddenly become weak and floppy. A trip to the local health centre, which could be many miles away, confirms that the child is showing classic signs of acute flaccid paralysis. This is one of the key indicators for poliovirus and kick starts the polio surveillance system into action.
In this issue:
How Surveillance Works
Containing a Polio Outbreak: Horn of Africa and Central Africa
Review of the Polio Eradication and Endgame Strategic Plan
Global Voices in Support of Polio Eradication
The year ends with real – and fragile – progress: the longest stretch in history without wild poliovirus in Africa, large outbreaks stopped in the Middle East and the Horn of Africa, a certified polio-free South East Asia and no wild poliovirus type 3 for over 2 years. This will be the last weekly update of 2014.
In the north of Madagascar, supplementary immunization activities are planned for December in response to the outbreak of circulating vaccine derived poliovirus. National Immunization Days are planned for January. The aim is to boost immunity across the country against all strains of poliovirus using trivalent oral polio vaccine.
For the first time ever, only 1 case of wild poliovirus has been reported in Africa in the last 4 months. The case had onset of paralysis on 11 August in Somalia.
In response to the outbreak of circulating vaccine-derived poliovirus (cVDPV) in South Sudan, over 19,000 children were vaccinated last week in Bentiu Poc, where the two cases were reported. Outbreak response plans are in place to hold three rounds of supplementary immunization activities (SIAs) in high risk areas to stop transmission of the virus.
In Madagascar, a circulating vaccine-derived poliovirus type 1 (cVDPV1) has been confirmed. The virus was isolated from one case of acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) with onset of paralysis on 29 September, and from three healthy contacts. An estimated more than 25% of children remain under-immunized against polio in the country. Madagascar was previously affected by a cVDPV2 outbreak in 2001/2002 (resulting in five cases) and in 2005 (resulting in three cases). Emergency outbreak response is being finalized, with campaigns to be held in December and January.
- Three wild poliovirus type 1 (WPV1) cases were reported from South Sudan this week. Genetic sequencing is underway to determine the origin of the isolated viruses and possible relation to the ongoing Horn of Africa outbreak. The cases are from North Bahr El Gazal state (close to the border to Sudan) and Eastern Equatoria state (close to the border with Kenya and Uganda). The cases have triggered a full outbreak response from the Global Polio Eradication Initiative (GPEI) operational perspective.
Joining the effort to bring about a polio-free world
Geneva – The World Health Organization and the Saudi Fund for Development signed today a memorandum of understanding for the latter to contribute US$ 5 million to WHO, for the cost of polio eradication operations in Yemen and Sudan. The funds are part of a US$30 million commitment to polio eradication; US$ 10 million of this has been contributed to UNICEF for the purchase of oral polio vaccine.
On 25 August 2011, a Kenyan child was struck with paralysis due to type 1 wild poliovirus (WPV1). This most recent case of WPV is closely linked genetically not only to this transmission in Uganda in 2010, but also to cases in Kenya in 2009, signifying that this chain of transmission has persisted for at least 24 months.
Given gaps in surveillance performance, it is difficult to say with certainty whether circulation of the virus persisted in either Uganda or Kenya.
FACTS & FIGURES
- There have been 706 cases globally this year (635 type 1 and 71 type 3), compared with 1 126 cases at this time last year (387 type 1, 735 type 3, four type 1/3 mixtures).
First set of global data published on milestones of Strategic Plan 2010-2012
To help inform the new Independent Monitoring Board
Geneva, Switzerland - The World Health Organization (WHO) has published its first quarterly 'data compilation' against the global milestones of the new Global Polio Eradication Initiative (GPEI) Strategic Plan 2010-2012. The status update provides basic epidemiological information on milestones and major indicators.
This update is part of a series of reports which will inform the deliberations of a new Independent Monitoring Board (IMB).
Pakistan - polio infrastructure supports flood relief effort: Polio eradication staff and resources are being used to help in the response to the devastating floods affecting Pakistan. Polio epidemiologists and surveillance officers in the worst-affected areas of North West Frontier Province (NWPF, now known as Khyber Pakhtunkhwa) and Punjab are equipped with vehicles, radio equipment, satellite phones, vital medicines and potable water tanks.
- Executive Summary
FOR the Global Polio Eradication Initiative (GPEI), 2009 was a pilot year: an irony for a 20-year effort, but one that breathed innovation and fresh thinking into the initiative. At the beginning of the year, poliovirus survived in parts of four countries and was causing a large-scale international outbreak for the second time in five years. Poliovirus had - for the first time - re-established transmission in several countries.
Step towards targets in new polio eradication strategy
28 July 2010, Atlanta, Evanston, Geneva, New York - On Friday, 30th July, the Horn of Africa is again polio-free, with Sudan, Ethiopia, Kenya and Uganda having reported no wild poliovirus cases for more than a year.
* Tajikistan has launched its response to a large wild poliovirus type 1 (WPV1) outbreak, with a national immunization activity being launched on 1 May in Dushanbe, the capital. As of this week, 32 WPV1 cases have been confirmed. For full details, see 'Tajikistan' section.
* At the T20 cricket world cup in St Lucia, the Indian and Afghanistan cricket teams came together at a media event to urge parents to immunize their children.
Polio outbreak in Tajikistan: Wild poliovirus type 1 (WPV1) has been detected in Tajikistan, representing the first importation of poliovirus in the WHO European Region since it was certified polio-free in 2002. The virus is most closely related to viruses originating in Uttar Pradesh, India. 199 cases of acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) have been reported, the majority of these having had onset of paralysis in April. To date, WPV1 had been isolated in 32 of these cases.
THE YEAR 2008 witnessed a polio outbreak in Nigeria, with new international spread to bordering countries, persistent importations in south-central Africa and Sudan and the largest outbreak of polio in eight years in Pakistan. Elsewhere, western Uttar Pradesh in India - historically the world's most entrenched reservoir of polio but free of indigenous poliovirus type 1 for more than a year - was re-infected by a virus from a neighbouring state. By the end of the year, the number of children paralysed by polio in 2008 had returned to 1999 levels.
Polio partners commend new measures by Government of Southern Sudan
Emergency measures have been launched by the Government of Southern Sudan to stop a polio outbreak spreading across the Horn of Africa. Previously restricted to Southern Sudan and western Ethiopia, the outbreak has this year spread to Kenya, Uganda and northern Sudan.
- Sudan is experiencing a large outbreak
of polio with a significant risk of international spread.
- The World Health Organization (WHO) has notified its Member States of this risk through the International Health Regulations (2005).
- Sudan is experiencing an outbreak of wild poliovirus, which has now spread into Kenya (first case since 2006) and Uganda (first case since 1996)
- Infected provinces in northern Sudan: Khartoum, Red Sea
- Infected provinces in southern Sudan: Central- , Western- and Eastern Equatoria, Jonglei, Lakes, Warab, Unity, Upper Nile