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This CIFP report provides a global fragility ranking for 2011 for a total of 197 countries. The global rankings indicate that Somalia tops the list of most fragile countries followed closely by Afghanistan, Chad, the Democratic Republic of Congo, Yemen, and Central African Republic. Sudan, Eritrea, Pakistan and Cote d'Ivoire round out our top 10.
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- Overall, Bangladesh, Nepal, Pakistan, and Sri Lanka exhibit moderate-to-high fragility scores.
- When disaggregated by sector, specific and significant areas of weakness become apparent to varying extents in all four countries.
- Governance is a primary area of weakness in the region, particularly with regards to inclusiveness, transparency and accountability; Sri Lanka is the only country of the four scoring relatively well in this category.
- Security concerns, both domestic and regional, undermine attempts to strengthen governance and economic performance in …
- Kashmir is a divided and contested set of contiguous principalities in the mountains between India and Pakistan.
- Kashmir's population is primarily Muslim though all groups are afflicted by the dispute in territory controlled by India as well as across the Line of Control in Pakistani-Kashmir.
- The territory has been disputed since 1947 when Kashmir acceded to India with the expectation of a public referendum to determine its final status.
- The referendum was delayed and the state of the disputed principalities became a military matter.
The root of the conflict between India and Pakistan centers on the disputed region of Kashmir. Although the region was ostensibly ceded to India upon independence in 1947, the government of Pakistan has argued the unconstitutionality of the rule since that time, claiming that because Kashmir was occupied by a Muslim majority, it should rightful have joined Pakistan.