Appeals & Response Plans
- Mauritania: Drought - May 2018
- West Africa: Ebola Outbreak - Mar 2014
- Mauritania: Floods - Sep 2013
- Sahel Crisis: 2011-2017
- Mauritania: Floods - Aug 2010
- West Africa: Floods - Jul 2009
- Mauritania: Floods - Aug 2009
- Influenza A (H1N1) Pandemic - Apr 2009
- West Africa: Floods - Jul 2008
- Mauritania: Floods - Aug 2007
Maps & Infographics
Polio this week as of 1 June 2016
Last week, health ministers from around the world met in Geneva for the annual World Health Assembly (WHA). Among other public health topics, delegates reviewed and discussed the latest global polio epidemiology and reaffirmed commitment to ending transmission in the remaining polio reservoirs. Read more
This week, health ministers from around the world are convening in Geneva for the annual World Health Assembly (WHA). Among other public health topics, delegates will review and discuss the latest global polio epidemiology. The GPEI has set up a WHA-specific polio website, with the key documents that are guiding discussions.
From the 17 April to the 1 May, 155 countries and territories participated in the historic trivalent to bivalent oral polio vaccine switch, withdrawing the type two component of the vaccine to protect future generations against circulating vaccine derived polioviruses. Track the switch live.
The World Health Assembly (WHA) Report on Poliomyelitis has been published. The report summarises the status against the Polio Endgame Plan and Resolution WHA68.3, adopted by the WHA in May 2015.
Canada has announced a contribution of $ 40 million Canadian Dollars to support the eradication of polio in Pakistan over the next three years.
The third Outbreak Response Assessment in Madagascar found that the surveillance system is not yet strong enough to conclude that polio transmission has been interrupted. Thirty-nine high-risk districts have been identified to receive focused attention.
One new cases of wild poliovirus type 1 (WPV1) were reported in the past week, in Nawzad district of Hilmand province, with onset of paralysis on 23 January. The total number of WPV1 cases for 2016 remains 2, compared to 1 reported for 2015 at this point last year.
No new WPV1 environmental positive samples were reported in the past week. The most recent environmental positive samples were collected on 27 December 2015 - one in Jalalabad in Nangarhar province and the second in the city of Kabul.
As we enter February 2016, GPEI bids farewell to Hamid Jafari, the former director of GPEI, whose tenure has seen the removal of Nigeria from the list of polio-endemic countries, certification of the eradication of wild poliovirus type 2, and the lowest number of cases reported in the fewest number of places in any one year. GPEI welcomes Michel Zaffran, former coordinator of the WHO Expanded Programme on Immunization (EPI), as its new director, as we enter a pivotal part of the Endgame Plan.
- Pakistan launched a nationwide polio campaign this week to vaccinate more than 35 million children in 163 districts of the country. Approximately 200,000 polio workers are participating in the polio campaign, during which Vitamin A will also be distributed.
A case of vaccine-derived poliovirus type 2 (VDPV2) has been reported with onset of paralysis on 20 July 2015 in Bamako city, Mali. The virus was isolated from a 19-month old boy of Guinean nationality. The closest genetic match to this case is from a case from Kankan, Guinea, with onset of paralysis on 30 August 2014. The genetic changes suggest that the cVDPV2 has been circulating for more than 12 months. Discussions are currently ongoing with national health authorities to plan and implement an urgent outbreak response.
In response to the outbreak of circulating vaccine-derived poliovirus (cVDPV) in South Sudan, over 19,000 children were vaccinated last week in Bentiu Poc, where the two cases were reported. Outbreak response plans are in place to hold three rounds of supplementary immunization activities (SIAs) in high risk areas to stop transmission of the virus.
In Madagascar, a circulating vaccine-derived poliovirus type 1 (cVDPV1) has been confirmed. The virus was isolated from one case of acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) with onset of paralysis on 29 September, and from three healthy contacts. An estimated more than 25% of children remain under-immunized against polio in the country. Madagascar was previously affected by a cVDPV2 outbreak in 2001/2002 (resulting in five cases) and in 2005 (resulting in three cases). Emergency outbreak response is being finalized, with campaigns to be held in December and January.
- In the Democratic Republic of Congo, all samples from 2012 AFP cases have now been fully cleared, and confirm that the country has not reported a WPV case in over one year (the last reported WPV case had onset of paralysis on 20 December 2011).
- Islamic scholars call for urgent action to complete polio eradication in Muslim communities: “Crippled children lead to a crippled Muslim Ummah” warned the Grand Imam of Al-Azhar, at a meeting in Cairo this week of Muslim scholars from several countries.
Intense virus transmission in northern Nigeria, large-scale population movements and lack of funds make for dangerous situation
West Africa just comes off the heels in stopping a multi-country polio outbreak that affected 12 countries from 2009 to 2011, caused 281 cases and cost US$94 million to control. But the threat of a renewed outbreak now looms as large as ever.
Polio transmission is heating up in northwestern Nigeria just as populations move back along traditional stock routes and into areas now affected by conflict, such as Mali.
In Nigeria, authorities are focusing on making sure vaccination activities are well-implemented in the northwest of the country, particularly in Sokoto and Zamfara states. It is from this area that poliovirus has in the past spread into west Africa, causing outbreaks in previously polio-free areas. This risk is currently magnified by the security situation in Mali, and associated population movements.
FACTS & FIGURES
- There have been 706 cases globally this year (635 type 1 and 71 type 3), compared with 1 126 cases at this time last year (387 type 1, 735 type 3, four type 1/3 mixtures).
Pakistan - polio infrastructure supports flood relief effort: Polio eradication staff and resources are being used to help in the response to the devastating floods affecting Pakistan. Polio epidemiologists and surveillance officers in the worst-affected areas of North West Frontier Province (NWPF, now known as Khyber Pakhtunkhwa) and Punjab are equipped with vehicles, radio equipment, satellite phones, vital medicines and potable water tanks.