Appeals & Response Plans
- Kenya: Floods - Mar 2018
- East Africa: Armyworm Infestation - Mar 2017
- Kenya: Floods - Apr 2016
- Kenya: Floods - Nov 2015
- Kenya: Cholera Outbreak - Feb 2015
- Kenya: Drought - 2014-2018
- West Africa: Ebola Outbreak - Mar 2014
- Horn of Africa: Polio Outbreak - May 2013
- Kenya: Floods - Mar 2013
- Kenya: Floods - Jan 2013
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Hopes that the August 2015 peace agreement between the Sudan People’s Liberation Movement (SPLM) government of Salva Kiir and the Sudan People’s Liberation Movement-in-Opposition (SPLM-IO) of Riek Machar would end the conflict in South Sudan collapsed with the return to fighting on 8 July 2016. A year later the fighting has continued and spread, the humanitarian crisis has deepened, and the international peacemakers are reduced to making appeals to end the violence that are ignored.
This paper describes the establishment, evolution, and internal dynamics of the Sudan People’s Liberation Movement-in Opposition (SPLM-IO) following the events of December 2013; the distinct motivations and objectives of its political and military leaderships; and the state of the organization immediately prior to the signing of the compromise peace agreement brokered by the Inter-Governmental Authority on Development (IGAD) in August 2015.
In vast areas of East Africa, violent conflict involving pastoralist communities, and exacerbated by the prevalence of firearms, has resulted in large-scale death and injury, as well as the impoverishment of entire communities.
Many communities reliant on agro-pastoralism are situated in the Karamoja Cluster and in the Horn of Africa. The Karamoja Cluster comprises the border regions of south-western Ethiopia, north-western Kenya, south-eastern South Sudan, and north-eastern Uganda; the Horn of Africa is made up of Djibouti, Eritrea, Ethiopia, and Somalia.
A recent survey on perceptions of security in Kenya found that the highest area of concern among household respondents was safety during electioneering periods. Specifically, 48.4 per cent felt most unsafe during political campaigns: an understandable anxiety, given Kenya’s recent political history and its recurrent electoral violence.
Almost one-half of Kenyan women have experienced physical or sexual violence, including forced sexual initiation. Much of the violence is barely acknowledged, let alone investigated and prosecuted. Extreme and even fatal acts of violence—targeting poor women in particular—are common enough to be considered unremarkable, a non-issue for the media, the political class, the police, and by extension, the Kenyan state.
Small arms availability and misuse have been a problem in Kenya for many years, but the post-2007 election violence increased the urgency of small arms reduction efforts. While significant progress has been made, law enforcement efforts to control the proliferation of small arms still face considerable challenges, according to a new study.
The study—conducted jointly by the Government of Kenya and the Geneva-based Small Arms Survey—assesses small arms proliferation in Kenya, and considers the capacity of those involved in small arms control and peace-building efforts.
In an effort to reduce insecurity in Darfur and throughout Sudan, the international community has established legal restrictions on arms transfers to Sudan, including the 2004 and 2005 United Nations arms embargoes on Darfur, and the 1994 European Union (EU) arms embargo on Sudan (updated in 2004). In addition, the 2005 Comprehensive Peace Agreement (CPA) between the Government of Sudan and the Sudan People's Liberation Movement/Army establishes restrictions on the resupply of military equipment to forces within the agreement's Ceasefire Zone.
By Claire Mc Evoy and Ryan Murray
Eastern Equatoria State in South Sudan and Turkana North District in neighbouring Kenya lie in one of the most conflict-prone regions in the East and Horn of Africa, where the use of firearms is endemic. The Small Arms Survey conducted a household survey in this region in mid-2007 to gather data on levels of firearm-related victimization, and to explore actual and perceived security threats as well as attitudes towards disarmament.
By James Bevan
Kenya has an ammunition problem. The Government of Kenya is fully aware of the symptoms, but it is not aware that it plays a large role in nurturing them. Turkana North District is afflicted by some of the most intense armed violence in the region.
Cattle herders are widely dispersed throughout the border regions of southern Sudan, northern Uganda, and north-western Kenya. Known collectively as the Ateker,(1 ) these pastoralists share common community structures, languages, and ethnicity. Inhabiting the political, social, and economic periphery, they have long suffered marginalization at the hands of central governments, while at the same time seeking to protect their own independence and cultural autonomy.
A review of violence reduction efforts in Sudan, Uganda, and Kenya
Cattle herders are widely dispersed throughout the border regions of southern Sudan, northern Uganda, and north-western Kenya. Known collectively as the Ateker, these pastoralists share common community structures, languages, and ethnicity, Inhabiting the political, social, and economic periphery, they have long suffered marginalization at the hands of central governments, while tat the same time seeking to protect their own independence and cultural autonomy.
This report assesses the humanitarian impacts
of small arms on civilian populations and humanitarian and development
agencies seeking to provide relief and long-term assistance to vulnerable
groups. For this purpose, it looks at the following issues:
- Direct and indirect impacts, humanitarianism under siege
- Developing a framework: Indicators, methodological caveats
- Introduction of countries: Kenya, Colombia, East Timor
- Thematic review: A look at civilian impacts
- Thematic review: The operational security environment