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05 Apr 2013 description
report Chatham House

Despite strong economic growth in many countries of the Horn and Sahel, environmental and demographic changes coupled to low levels of political inclusion and high instability mean that the risk of acute food crises is likely to increase. Conflict and geopolitics act as risk multipliers, meaning that full-blown famine remains a real threat, as was seen most recently in Somalia during 2011.

15 Dec 2009 description
report Chatham House

Summary points

- Among the drivers of conflict in the Horn of Africa economic motivations have been ubiquitous and pervasive in prompting and sustaining conflict. At other times economic drivers have exhibited a potential for peaceful cooperation. An understanding of their role and relationship with other forces of change is essential.

- Conflict in the Horn frequently has economic impacts across national borders.

18 Nov 2009 description
report Chatham House

Roger Middleton, December 2009, The World Today, Volume 65, Number 12

The north eastern corner of Africa is again witnessing shocking scenes of deprivation. The Horn of Africa, from Sudan through Kenya and Ethiopia to Somalia regularly suffers from prolonged and devastating food shortages and this is one of the worst for many years. Preventing repeats of this suffering depends as much on the politics of the region as on aid and development.

ACCORDING TO THE WORLD FOOD Programme, around twenty million people in the Horn of Africa need food aid.

23 Jun 2008 description
report Chatham House

Executive summary

This report is a study of three peace processes in the Horn of Africa, a region of Africa distinguished by the prevalence and persistence of armed conflict. It deals with the Algiers Agreement of December 2000 between Ethiopia and Eritrea, the Somalia National Peace and Reconciliation Process concluded in October 2004 and the Sudan Comprehensive Peace Agreement of January 2005. It examines in turn the background and historical context of the conflicts that these peace agreements were intended to resolve.

31 Aug 2007 description
report Chatham House


The name Ogaden belongs to the largest Somali sub-clan living in the Somali region, the Ogaadeen, of Ethiopia. Historically, the Somali-inhabited area of Ethiopia has been known as the Ogaden region. It also gave its name to the war between Ethiopia and Somalia in 1977/78. After 1991 it became the Somali Regional State, also known as Region 5.

The population size is highly disputed, with allegations that the 1994 census findings were reduced from as much as 9.2 or 7.5 million to 3.4 million.

01 Jan 2007 description
report Chatham House


- Six years after they signed a peace agreement in Algiers, Ethiopia and Eritrea continue their confrontation. Ethiopia won't accept the ruling of the Boundary Commission. Eritrea won't negotiate. Tensions rise in Somalia as Ethiopia and Eritrea back different sides.

- The United Nations peacekeeping mission to Ethiopia and Eritrea, UNMEE, struggles to maintain a presence in the border area, its activities restricted and its exit strategy blocked. Major UN and US initiatives fail.

31 Mar 1999 description
report Chatham House

Martin Plaut and Patrick Gilkes