Appeals & Response Plans
- Tropical Cyclone Sagar - May 2018
- Ethiopia: Floods and Landslides - Apr 2018
- Ethiopia: Floods - Aug 2017
- Ethiopia: Measles Outbreak - May 2017
- East Africa: Armyworm Infestation - Mar 2017
- Ethiopia: Acute Watery Diarrhoea (AWD) Outbreak - May 2016
- Ethiopia: Floods - Apr 2016
- Ethiopia: Floods - Oct 2015
- Ethiopia: Drought - 2015-2018
- Ethiopia: Floods - Oct 2014
Most read reports
- Ethiopia: Renewed influx of Eritrean refugees, 12th September to 13th October 2018
- UNICEF Horn of Africa Drought Situation as of September 2018
- Plight of refugees in Ethiopia brought to the fore in UNFPA leadership visit
- Ethiopia – Eritrean Refugee Influx (DG ECHO, UNHCR, NRC) (ECHO Daily Flash of 26 September 2018)
- Refugee Girls Gain from Effort to Teach Life Skills
Despite a return of seasonally normal rainfall during August, moisture deficits persist in northwestern Senegal. The delayed onset of the season in July has resulted in poor growing conditions and crop development.
Poor July rains in several local areas of Mali have resulted in poor crop and pastoral conditions. August and September rains have improved ground conditions, although the rainy season is quickly coming to a close.
More than 6 months has passed since a case of wild poliovirus was reported in Syria or Iraq. This is testimony to the dedication of local health workers and the significant efforts of many partners to reach all children with supplementary immunization activities. Over 22 million children have been vaccinated against polio multiple times in the past year, in the midst of active conflict and a humanitarian crisis.
All cases of wild poliovirus type 1 reported this week were from Pakistan. In 2014, Pakistan has accounted for 83% of cases reported globally. Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province and the Federally Administered Tribal Areas (FATA) constitute the most heavily infected area of the world, with 73% of cases worldwide occurring within these provinces.
The risk of international spread of polio from Pakistan remains high. The bulk of cases in neighbouring Afghanistan are linked to cross-border transmission with Pakistan, and the outbreak affecting the Middle East originated in Pakistan.
Iraq:Up to 13% of IDPs are located in areas that are currently not considered accessible by humanitarian actors. The overall number and geographical spread of IDPs pose a major challenge for provision of assistance. Approximately 1.5 million individuals are in need of emergency food assistance. An estimated 580,000 people are in urgent need of emergency shelter assistance.
Ebola in Liberia, Sierra Leone, and Guinea: Transmission remains high, and case numbers doubled between the last week of August and the first of September in Liberia; in Sierra Leone 150 cases were reported for each of the last two weeks. Fewer cases have been reported in Guinea – 49 between 5 and 7 September – but the case fatality rate has been extremely high, at 65%.
Protecting west Africa: Even as polio programme staff across west Africa support efforts to control the Ebola outbreak affecting the region, preparations are going ahead for large scale multi-country vaccination campaigns in those countries not affected by Ebola, in mid-September.
In Nigeria, inactivated polio vaccine (IPV) has been used in early August during supplementary immunization activities in Borno and Yobe, reaching 0.6 million children. Further campaigns will integrate IPV, aiming to reach more than a million children by April 2015.
- 377 Assessing and mitigating the risks of outbreaks due to wild poliovirus in polio-free African countries, 2013-2014
- 387 Monthly report on dracunculiasis cases, January- July 2014
- 377 Evaluation et atténuation du risque de flambée due à un poliovirus sauvage dans les pays africains exempts de poliomyélite, 2013-2014
- 387 Rapport mensuel des cas de dracunculose, janvier-juillet 2014
Continued transmission in Kano: wild poliovirus 1 transmission continues in a geographically limited area of southern Kano state, Nigeria, indicating pockets where vaccination campaigns and social mobilization are still too weak to assure sufficient coverage during campaigns. Kano is the only state in Nigeria reporting cases of wild poliovirus since April.
The Horn of Africa Technical Advisory Group (TAG) met last week to review the current epidemiological situation, the impact of outbreak response and to determine additional strategies needed to rapidly interrupt residual transmission in the region. Plans were developed to increase access to mobile populations, to improve community surveillance and to strengthen campaign quality. Read more in the Horn of Africa section below.
The Horn of Africa Technical Advisory Group (TAG) is meeting this week to review the current epidemiological situation and the impact of the outbreak response and to determine additional strategies needed to close the outbreak. See ‘Horn of Africa’ section below, for more.
In West Africa, polio staff are supporting efforts to curb the Ebola outbreak affecting the region. Staff are actively engaged in helping preparedness planning, social mobilization, surveillance of suspected cases, contact tracing and assisting with outbreak logistics.
In Pakistan, three new cases have been reported, including one from Balochistan. It is the first case in this province since October 2012. However, four positive environmental samples were collected in 2014 from Quetta, Balochistan, the most recent of which on 20 June. This case is linked to these positive environmental samples, suggesting local circulation of WPV1 this year in this area.
Halfway into 2014, Pakistan is just six wild poliovirus cases short of exceeding their 2013 total. North Waziristan – which is responsible for 63% of the country’s cases this year – remains inaccessible, although more than 400,000 former residents have fled recent conflict in the area. Efforts are under way to vaccinate as many children of internally displaced families as possible, including through routine immunization services and fixed vaccination posts at major transit sites.
Guinea, Liberia, Sierra Leone: The Ebola outbreak that started at the beginning of 2014 has resurged, with more than 635 cases recorded, including 399 deaths, as of 23 June. WHO is urging a wider, inter-country response to the subregional crisis.
South Sudan: SAM was found to be at 6% from a screening of 500,000 children. In Bentiu UN base, the under-five mortality rate has passed the emergency threshold. 2,300 cases of cholera have been reported.
At an International Ulema Conference on Polio Eradication organized by the Islamic Development Bank, leading Islamic scholars called for the entire Muslim world to unite in eradicating polio, and declared the polio vaccination as a parental and community responsibility. The scholars were convened from Pakistan, Saudi Arabia, Egypt, Afghanistan and Nigeria.
Dryness continues in parts of East Africa, Central America and Haiti; flooding in Guatemala and West Africa
Africa Weather Hazards
Poor rainfall distribution during March-May rainfall season hurt agricultural and pastoral activities throughout western Kenya, parts of northwestern Tanzania. Although some areas could still receive enhanced rains over the next week, the ending rainy season could further worsen ground conditions.
The Technical Advisory Groups (TAGs) on Polio Eradication in Afghanistan and Pakistan met in Islamabad, Pakistan, last week. The TAG recognized the important progress in Afghanistan and concluded that the country is in a strong position to interrupt endemic transmission of the virus in 2014, provided the country addresses the remaining challenges and risks.
Eighteen months ago, as 2012 drew to a close, optimism was running high for the Global Polio Eradication Initiative. Polio transmission in India had been interrupted. The three remaining endemic countries (Pakistan, Nigeria, Afghanistan) had made significant programmatic improvements. Some believed that success was imminent; that polio would soon be history.
Within a matter of months, this optimism quickly unwound:
• Targeted killing of polio vaccinators in Pakistan shocked the world and created major operational constraints.
- 237 Progress towards polio eradication worldwide, 2013–2014
- 244 Anticipating epidemics
- 237 Progrès accomplis vers l’éradication de la poliomyélite à l’échelle mondiale, 2013-2014
- 244 Anticiper les épidémies
A case of polio due to wild poliovirus type 1 (WPV1) was reported in the past week from Iraq, the second child to be paralyzed by polio in the country since the beginning of the Middle East outbreak last year. Countries are currently implementing the second phase of the regional outbreak response. A targeted mop-up campaign is currently ongoing in the area where the two cases in Iraq were found.