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- Can improved Ethiopia-Eritrea relations stabilise the region?
- Security Council Press Statement on Developments in Horn of Africa Region
- Along with Peace, Eritreans Need Repression to End
- Among the drivers of conflict in the Horn of Africa economic motivations have been ubiquitous and pervasive in prompting and sustaining conflict. At other times economic drivers have exhibited a potential for peaceful cooperation. An understanding of their role and relationship with other forces of change is essential.
- Conflict in the Horn frequently has economic impacts across national borders.
This report is a study of three peace processes in the Horn of Africa, a region of Africa distinguished by the prevalence and persistence of armed conflict. It deals with the Algiers Agreement of December 2000 between Ethiopia and Eritrea, the Somalia National Peace and Reconciliation Process concluded in October 2004 and the Sudan Comprehensive Peace Agreement of January 2005. It examines in turn the background and historical context of the conflicts that these peace agreements were intended to resolve.
THE OGADEN: BASIC FACTS
The name Ogaden belongs to the largest Somali sub-clan living in the Somali region, the Ogaadeen, of Ethiopia. Historically, the Somali-inhabited area of Ethiopia has been known as the Ogaden region. It also gave its name to the war between Ethiopia and Somalia in 1977/78. After 1991 it became the Somali Regional State, also known as Region 5.
The population size is highly disputed, with allegations that the 1994 census findings were reduced from as much as 9.2 or 7.5 million to 3.4 million.
- Six years after they signed a peace agreement in Algiers, Ethiopia and Eritrea continue their confrontation. Ethiopia won't accept the ruling of the Boundary Commission. Eritrea won't negotiate. Tensions rise in Somalia as Ethiopia and Eritrea back different sides.
- The United Nations peacekeeping mission to Ethiopia and Eritrea, UNMEE, struggles to maintain a presence in the border area, its activities restricted and its exit strategy blocked. Major UN and US initiatives fail.
Martin Plaut and Patrick Gilkes