- Tropical Cyclone Sagar - May 2018
- Horn of Africa Crisis: 2011-2012
- Influenza A (H1N1) Pandemic - Apr 2009
- Djibouti: Floods - Apr 2004
- Djibouti: Toxic Pollution - Mar 2002
- Djibouti: Drought - Aug 1999
- Djibouti: Drought - Jul 1996
- Djibouti: Floods - Nov 1994
- Djibouti: Floods - Apr 1989
- Djibouti: Drought - Feb 1988
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The Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Republic of Korea announced today an additional USD$2 million to fund polio outbreak response and surveillance activities in the Horn of Africa.
21 June 2018 – The Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Republic of Korea announced today an additional USD$2 million to fund polio outbreak response and surveillance activities in the Horn of Africa. This commitment makes Korea the first country to support outbreak response efforts in the region, critical to protecting global progress toward ending polio.
- Pakistan launched a nationwide polio campaign this week to vaccinate more than 35 million children in 163 districts of the country. Approximately 200,000 polio workers are participating in the polio campaign, during which Vitamin A will also be distributed.
A case of vaccine-derived poliovirus type 2 (VDPV2) has been reported with onset of paralysis on 20 July 2015 in Bamako city, Mali. The virus was isolated from a 19-month old boy of Guinean nationality. The closest genetic match to this case is from a case from Kankan, Guinea, with onset of paralysis on 30 August 2014. The genetic changes suggest that the cVDPV2 has been circulating for more than 12 months. Discussions are currently ongoing with national health authorities to plan and implement an urgent outbreak response.
The year ends with real – and fragile – progress: the longest stretch in history without wild poliovirus in Africa, large outbreaks stopped in the Middle East and the Horn of Africa, a certified polio-free South East Asia and no wild poliovirus type 3 for over 2 years. This will be the last weekly update of 2014.
In the north of Madagascar, supplementary immunization activities are planned for December in response to the outbreak of circulating vaccine derived poliovirus. National Immunization Days are planned for January. The aim is to boost immunity across the country against all strains of poliovirus using trivalent oral polio vaccine.
For the first time ever, only 1 case of wild poliovirus has been reported in Africa in the last 4 months. The case had onset of paralysis on 11 August in Somalia.
In response to the outbreak of circulating vaccine-derived poliovirus (cVDPV) in South Sudan, over 19,000 children were vaccinated last week in Bentiu Poc, where the two cases were reported. Outbreak response plans are in place to hold three rounds of supplementary immunization activities (SIAs) in high risk areas to stop transmission of the virus.
On 13 November, the Director-General of WHO accepted the recommendation of an International Health Regulations (IHR) Emergency Committee of Experts on polio that the international spread of polio continues to constitute a Public Health Emergency of International Concern (PHEIC) under the IHR, and extended the existing Temporary Recommendations to prevent the international spread of polio for countries affected by the disease for another 3 months.
In Madagascar, a circulating vaccine-derived poliovirus type 1 (cVDPV1) has been confirmed. The virus was isolated from one case of acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) with onset of paralysis on 29 September, and from three healthy contacts. An estimated more than 25% of children remain under-immunized against polio in the country. Madagascar was previously affected by a cVDPV2 outbreak in 2001/2002 (resulting in five cases) and in 2005 (resulting in three cases). Emergency outbreak response is being finalized, with campaigns to be held in December and January.
Eighteen months ago, as 2012 drew to a close, optimism was running high for the Global Polio Eradication Initiative. Polio transmission in India had been interrupted. The three remaining endemic countries (Pakistan, Nigeria, Afghanistan) had made significant programmatic improvements. Some believed that success was imminent; that polio would soon be history.
Within a matter of months, this optimism quickly unwound:
• Targeted killing of polio vaccinators in Pakistan shocked the world and created major operational constraints.
- Following confirmation of polio in Syria, health ministers of the Eastern Mediterranean declared the circulation of poliovirus in the Region an ‘emergency’ for all Member States at its Regional Committee meeting in Oman last week.
In the Horn of Africa, the outbreak of wild poliovirus type 1 (WPV1) has reached 31 cases, 25 from Somalia (primarily from Banadir region) and 6 from Kenya (Dadaab in north-eastern Kenya). This is the first WPV outbreak in Somalia since 2007 and in Kenya since 2011.