Following reports of sexual exploitation
of refugees in West Africa in 2001 and in Nepal in 2003, the UN Secretary
General issued a Bulletin in October 2003 obliging UN agencies and their
nongovernmental partners to prevent, and when suspected, to investigate
any sexual exploitation and sexual abuse (SEA) by humanitarian staff. Humanitarian
organizations, galvanized by the reports of refugee abuse, began adopting
and revising Codes of Conduct and other related policies.
The Building Safer Organizations (BSO)