Sudan: Darfur Humanitarian Profile No. 3 - Situation as of 01 Jul 2004
Over one million internally displaced persons (IDPs) are estimated in the western Sudan region of Darfur with 225,493 in South Darfur, 324,215 in North Darfur and 500,748 in West Darfur. Including the affected host community of 203,584 people, the total number of conflict-affected accounted for in this document is estimated at 1,260,421. An additional significant number of the population, who are neither IDPs nor part of the host community have been affected by the conflict. This number is not known, but estimated at more than two million people including IDPs and host communities.
In June, it is estimated that 52% of the conflict-affected population were provided with food, 54% of IDPs received NFI/shelter assistance, 38% of the conflict affected population have clean water, 13% of IDPs are covered by sanitation interventions, and primary health care facilities cover 37% of the conflict-affected population. Secondary health care facilities are available for 16% of the conflict-affected population, and an emergency measles campaign, which pre-empted the routine expanded program on immunization (EPI) schedule, covered 88% of all children between the ages of 9 months and 15 years.
Protection and security remain the main concerns of IDPs. Despite the signing of a ceasefire agreement on 8 April, the parties to the conflict continue to fight, and Janjaweed militias continue to attack and loot villages throughout the Darfurs.
1. The Darfur Humanitarian Profile is a ‘living document’ that aims to provide as comprehensive an overview as possible of the number and locations of IDPs and other people affected by the recent conflict in Darfur at a specific point in time, and a description of the current humanitarian agency presence in the region. This document aims to provide the most recent information and data available from the field. Most importantly, however, the Humanitarian Profile aims to clearly outline the needs and gaps as of 1 July 2004 in key sectors such as food, shelter, clean water, sanitation, primary health care facilities, basic drug supplies, secondary health facilities, and EPI.1 As such it is a benchmark for assessing the overall humanitarian situation in Darfur and the adequacy of the current humanitarian response. It is additionally used for contingency/program planning, advocacy and resource mobilization.2 A necessary caveat is that protection remains the IDPs foremost priority and lack of security continues to impact the humanitarian assistance program throughout the Darfur region.
2. The Profile consists of a narrative overview of the region including charts and maps providing key figures for each Darfur state regarding numbers of IDPs and affected people and gaps in each humanitarian sector provided both for the affected population as a whole and for those that are accessible to the United Nations security standards. The overall analysis of the humanitarian situation is complemented with information on access and protection issues. In addition, there is a specific overview on each Darfur state. A one-page matrix on each IDP location is included in the annexes and includes details on current response, pipeline issues, and action points for the specific location.
3. The one-page matrices for each IDP location have been filled in at the field level, in cooperation with humanitarian agencies on the ground as well as state Governments. A number of charts and maps based on the Darfur-wide tables are then produced along with a narrative description of the findings. The draft Profile is circulated to all UN agencies in Khartoum for comments and corrections. The Profile is updated on a monthly basis and placed on the internet (www.unsudanig.org). Appropriately trained OCHA staff in each of the three Darfur state capitals and a dedicated OCHA information officer in Khartoum facilitate the process.
4. Each of the three Darfur states are administratively divided into a number of Localities sub-divided into Administrative Units, which are further sub-divided into Village Councils, consisting of a number of villages and stand alone locations of IDPs. The administrative boundaries and exact location of IDP settlements in Darfur are under review for proper placement on accompanying maps.
5. The information in the Humanitarian Profile is collected based on a comprehensive list of principles and assumptions, which can be found at the end of this document. Although achievement of Sphere standards is the ultimate goal, different assumptions are used for some sectors given the emergency circumstances. These assumptions have been agreed by humanitarian agencies working in Darfur since the Humanitarian Profile project was first launched in September 2003. Given the demanding operational environment, the fluidity of the situation on the ground and difficulty of obtaining and verifying information, the Profile represents only our best understanding of the situation as of 1 July 2004.
6. The gaps indicated in the Profile are set against providing all identified IDPs and conflict affected people with basic services, although it is recognized that the human development indicators for Sudan as a whole, show that even in peaceful regions of the Sudan the basic human needs of a significant proportion of the population remain unfulfilled.3 Nevertheless, full coverage must remain the target of humanitarian interventions in Darfur given the extreme vulnerability of its conflict affected population who are generally living in extremely crowded conditions, having lost all sources of livelihood, and prone to various potentially fatal diseases. As a result vulnerability is not at a static level, but is at risk of seriously deteriorating further. In addition, continued attacks and insecurity despite the cease-fire agreement means that people remain fearful of returning to their homes and, in some cases, of even accepting humanitarian materials such as shelter, due to further anticipated looting and harassment by militias.
7. The Humanitarian Profile focuses solely on immediate humanitarian needs. Brief references are made in some matrices to assistance provided to agriculture and education as part of the emergency response effort. In general, however, substantive recovery and rehabilitation issues need to be addressed outside of this document once a substantiated peace has returned to the Greater Darfur Region.
Please address any comments to the UN Darfur Coordination and Information Cell, OCHA - Khartoum:
Mike McDonagh, Manager
Office: +249 (0) 183773121 ext.329
Mobile: +249 (0) 912 306469
Jessica Bowers, Information Officer
Office: +249 (0) 183773121 ext. 360
Mobile: +249 (0) 912 160066
Conflict affected population
1. The international response to the Darfur crisis has increased considerably in the past month. The UN Secretary-General, Kofi Annan, and the US Secretary of State, Colin Powell, made separate visits to Sudan and the Darfur region 29 June - 2 July. Following the visits, the UN and Government of Sudan (GoS) issued a joint communiqué on 3 July which stated that the bureaucratic regulations impeding the rapid scaling up of humanitarian assistance in the Darfur region would be lifted, that human rights violations would be investigated including with the deployment of human rights monitors and that there would be a political solution to the conflict.
2. A donors conference attended by key humanitarian agencies, donors, GoS officials and SLA and JEM rebel groups was held on 3 June in Geneva. This resulted in additional support and disbursements for the crisis though many agencies still have less than half the funding needed to support their programs. Additionally, the 90-Day Humanitarian Action Plan for Darfur, prepared by UN agencies and NGOs and currently covering the period from 1 June to 31 August 2004, was launched as the main tool to ensure an effective, coordinated response to the humanitarian needs. While some progress is being made in meeting the needs of people in the big concentration areas of IDPs across all sectors, the situation of people in the camps is still extremely poor, necessitating increased capacity and humanitarian response. IOM, in cooperation with OCHA, is carrying out a comprehensive assessment of camp management priorities. The results of this assessment will contribute to the better allocation of responsibilities and define roles for this sector. As security and protection remain priority issues for IDPs, humanitarian agencies should increase their capacity and capability through the provision of experienced international staff.
3. Due to the increasing international attention on the conflict and the increasing severity of the humanitarian crisis, GoS restrictions on humanitarian access have considerably eased during the month. UN and other operational agencies have also increased their presence to better respond to the crisis, however, only around 322 international staff (169 on 1 June) currently work in the Darfur region, compared to the projected 800 -1,000 international staff needed to provide aid and protection assistance to the conflict-affected population.
4. Increasing insecurity throughout the region has also been an impediment to humanitarian assistance. New rounds of fighting between the parties and raids by the Janjaweed are among the security concerns of IDPs and humanitarian staff. The number of checkpoints erected on some strategic routes by both the SLA and GoS in all the three Darfur states has increased and prevented the smooth operation of humanitarian traffic. Additionally, several security incidents involving clearly marked humanitarian convoys reported during the past month triggered increasing concerns about the safety and overall security situation in the region.
5. The scale and impact of the crisis on the civilian population in Darfur continues to rise. The vast majority of the IDP populations maintain that they are not ready to return to their areas of origin until increased security is provided at return locations. Many IDPs coming in from rural areas and recent arrivals from locations not yet reached by humanitarian assistance report continued harassment and violence. The African Union (AU) is sending ceasefire monitors throughout the region. However, only a small number of observers are in North Darfur and had by 1 July not yet started their operations.
6. The population of Darfur is estimated at just over six million with 1.6 million in North Darfur, 3.1 million in South Darfur and 1.6 million in West Darfur.4 It is almost impossible to know exactly how many of Darfur’s inhabitants are affected by the conflict though it is clear that the related insecurity has affected most areas. The estimated number of conflict-affected is expected to increase over time as agencies are able to gather more information and reach more distant areas as well as those currently inaccessible due to security reasons. The total number of IDPs in Darfur is as of 1 July estimated at 1,050,506 people, supported by equally vulnerable host communities totaling approximately 209,915 people. In addition, several hundred thousand people not in the above two categories are also affected by the conflict and in need of assistance although they remain in their villages. The total number of conflict-affected people in Darfur, including IDPs and host communities, is estimated at not less than two million people. About 500,748 IDPs are currently located in West Darfur, while there are approximately 324,215 in North Darfur and 225,493 in South Darfur, where identification of IDPs and locations is still underway (see Chart 1). In addition, more than 170,000 refugees are estimated by UNHCR to have fled to neighboring Chad.5
CHART 1 Darfur IDPs from the Recent Conflict
(UN estimates since September 2003)
NOTE: The drop in figures in some locations is due to improved data rather than return of populations.
7. IDPs and those hosting them are easier to identify than other populations since IDPs tend to gather in a limited number of locations. For this reason, only those conflict affected people that are either IDPs or residents in areas hosting IDPs are included in this Profile as seen in Chart 2. In areas where IDPs congregate, the total number of displaced is often many times that of permanent residents. This is however not the case in the three state capitals; the host communities there are thus not included in the Profile, although it is estimated that these host communities are also increasingly affected by the crisis. It should also be noted that of the 200,000 Dinka IDPs from Bahr-el-Ghazal state in Southern Sudan that were estimated to be living in South Darfur at the beginning of the recent Darfur crisis, only those affected by this recent conflict through further displacement or looting (since March 2003) are included in the Profile.
CHART 2 Estimated Number of Conflict Affected Population
(IDPs and Host Communities)
- Although many NGOs tend to follow UN security standards, some NGOs will go to areas even if the United Nations considers them "NO GO" areas;
- Access does not mean that humanitarian assistance is being delivered; and
- Humanitarian assistance is not being provided to SLA-held areas at this time.
CHART 3 Estimated Number of People Accessible According to UN Security Standards
People assisted and remaining gaps
9. The target population for most sectors is the total conflict affected population, including IDPs and host communities, while only IDPs are targeted for the provision of shelter material and sanitation as it is assumed that the host communities already have access to sanitation at a level that does not require additional emergency intervention. Children aged six to thirteen years (estimated at 22% of the total population) are the target population for education. For nutrition the target is the number of malnourished children under five receiving either therapeutic or supplementary feeding, estimated at 1/5 of 17% of the target population. An emergency measles campaign which pre-empted the routine EPI schedule for the month of June had a target population of all children nine months to fifteen years, estimated at 41% of the total population. Measles, normal even under peaceful conditions in Darfur, is a major concern because of the cramped conditions in which IDPs live. Agencies may continue to focus on the emergency measles vaccinations in July though primary health care units are being encouraged to consider a wider campaign of EPI coverage.
10. Chart 4 indicates the extent to which the needs of the conflict-affected population have been met and the remaining gaps in each sector. It is thus indicated that an estimated 48% of the conflict-affected population currently does not have access to food assistance (49% on 1 June). WFP, ICRC and various other NGO food pipelines provided an estimated 650,198 beneficiaries food assistance. WFP had initially planned to cover 800,000 IDPs in June but was hindered by capacity constraints, pipeline delays, insecurity and logistical difficulties. Continuing movement of the population and poorly prepared and verified government IDP lists, have further delayed the food distribution process.
CHART 4 Estimated Sectoral Needs and Gaps in Greater Darfur
NOTE: The figures given for EPI (measles campaign) reflect only measles vaccinations provided to the target population as of 1 July and not full EPI coverage.
11. There is a 46% gap in the provision of shelter material (88% on 1 June) and a 62% gap in the provision of clean water (67% on 1 June). Chart 5, provided by UNJLC, details the current stock of shelter and NFIs on the ground as a percent of the total requirement. The current shelter options in spontaneous settlements throughout Darfur provide insufficient protection from the weather conditions and the desert environment with its extreme temperatures. Further, the rainy season started on schedule in mid-June (see map: Accessibility During Rainy Season). Agencies believe that in a matter of weeks, the rains will have rendered some roads impassable to delivery of humanitarian assistance and transformed crowded and unsanitary displacement sites into breeding grounds for communicable diseases such as watery diarrhea, measles, meningitis, and malaria.
CHART 5 Current Stock of Shelter and NFIs
1 Additional sectors include nutrition, agriculture, education, protection and camp management.
2 The 90-Day Humanitarian Action Plan for Darfur is the framework of immediate response to the humanitarian situation outlined by UN agencies and NGOs over a period from 1 June to 31 August 2004. Both the 90-Day Plan and the Funding Overview for the Darfur Crisis - a resource-tracking document - can be found at www.unsudanig.org.
3 According to the Human Development Report 2003, Sudan’s HDI is 138 of 175; it is 52 among 94 developing countries on the Human Poverty Index; life expectancy at birth is 55.4 (66.7 world average); 75% of the population have access to an improved water source; and 62% of the population have access to improved sanitation.
4 UNFPA, Government of Sudan: Central Bureau for Statistics and the Federal Ministry of Health, Safe Motherhood Survey, 1999.
5 This is up from 120,000 refugees reported in the 1 June Profile.
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