Nigeria: 2017 Humanitarian Response Plan (January - December 2017)
OVERVIEW OF THE CRISIS
As it reaches its eighth year, the effect of the conflict between Boko Haram and military counter operations in North East Nigeria has reached devastating proportions with widespread forced displacement, acute food and nutrition insecurity and serious violations of international humanitarian and human rights law. While the Nigerian Armed Forces and community security groups have made significant territorial gains in the fight against Boko Haram, there is ongoing insecurity and Boko Haram continues to pose a threat.
The Humanitarian Response Plan 2017 will focus humanitarian community capacity on responding to the most urgent lifesaving needs. The most directly affected states of Borno, Adamawa and Yobe have an estimated 8.5 million people in need of life-saving assistance and the response aims to reach 6.9 million of the people in need in these three states.
While access has increased in 2016, it is estimated that many people1 remain inaccessible in six local government areas (LGAs) in Borno State. The dire situation found in recently accessible areas and the urgent life-saving needs suggest that those still unreachable are in critical need. Thirteen LGAs in Borno, 5 in Yobe and 1 in Adamawa are partially accessible through military secured main routes and at the LGA headquarters. Reaching all people in need remains the biggest challenge to the humanitarian operation, due to restricted access and high levels of insecurity. Some NGOs, Government and UN agencies are using military escorts as a last resort to deliver humanitarian assistance in the LGA headquarters, where there are large concentrations of IDPs secured with increased military presence.
Hunger and malnutrition rates are alarming, as the protection crisis has rapidly developed into a food and nutrition crisis.
Food and nutrition insecurity has reached extreme levels in parts of Borno, Adamawa and Yobe with 5.1 million people projected to be in IPC Phases 3 to 52 by June 2017, an increase in 50 per cent severely food insecure since March 2016. In the worst affected and least accessible areas of Borno and Yobe states severe forms of hunger and even famine-like conditions are occurring. Up to 450,0003 children will suffer severe acute malnutrition in Adamawa, Borno and Yobe over the next 12 months, with 300,000 in Borno alone.
Health needs remain extreme with many people already in critical health conditions and high prevalence of severe malnourishment, morbidity and mortality. The lack of basic shelter, water, latrines and shower facilities increases the risks of communicable diseases including cholera and exacerbates malnutrition among children under five. WASH infrastructure needs to be urgently rehabilitated/rebuilt in newly accessible LGAs to minimize waterborne diseases. After two years without a recorded case, four cases of wild polio virus were confirmed in 2016 in Borno, indicating the urgent escalating health needs.
There are an estimated three million conflict affected children with no access to education. Prior to the conflict school enrolment and attendance rates in North East Nigeria were among the lowest in the country with girls particularly lagging behind. In some areas schooling has been interrupted for over two years due to the conflict and overcrowding in host communities schools. In a marginalized area that was already underserved in terms of access to education the targeted destruction of more than 1,200 schools have had a devastating impact upon children’s right to education.
Protection needs, particularly in recently accessible areas, remain severe, especially for vulnerable groups, including women and children, and protection must be at the core of the humanitarian response. Civilians face grave human rights violations and human rights abuses including death, injuries, sexual and gender-based violence, arbitrary detention, disappearances, forced displacement, attacks on civilian sites and forced recruitment. Many families remain separated. Displaced people have experienced trauma and neglect. IDP sites are considered high visibility targets for attacks by Boko Haram, which often results in further restrictions by security actors. Assessments reveal limited access to humanitarian assistance and services contributed to negative copying mechanisms and sexual abuse and exploitations. Vulnerability screening found that 56 percent of GBV cases were associated with survival sex4 . Children are also joining community security groups.
There are limited safe, voluntary and sustainable returns of IDPs and refugees. However, some people are returning into areas which are not safe, with reports of deaths in subsequent Boko Haram attacks and returnees being displaced again.
While movement is being organized to bring IDPs back towards their areas of origin, most IDPs are being placed within LGA capitals, and therefore remain displaced. The organized movements of IDPs into their LGAs, without access to the rural areas and agricultural inputs will likely further increase their vulnerability.
To learn more about OCHA's activities, please visit http://unocha.org/.