Final report of the Group of Experts on the Democratic Republic of the Congo (S/2015/19)
The momentum created by the defeat of the Movement of 23 March in November 2013 failed to translate into significant gains in security and stability in 2014 in eastern Democratic Republic of the Congo. A military operation against the Allied Democratic Forces (ADF) significantly weakened, but did not defeat the sanctioned armed group. An expected military operation against the Forces démocratiques de libération du Rwanda (FDLR) did not materialize and, as of the end of November 2014, efforts to negotiate the disarmament of this sanctioned armed group have failed to produce meaningful results. In addition, numerous Congolese and foreign armed groups contributed to instability in Orientale, North Kivu, South Kivu and Katanga provinces.
ADF, FDLR, Nduma Defence for Congo (led by sanctioned individual Sheka Ntabo Ntaberi) and other armed groups continued to recruit, train and use child soldiers in 2014. Armed groups also committed a variety of other abuses, including torture, enslavement and sexual violence. There were mass killings in June in Mutarule (South Kivu) and in October and November in Beni territory (North Kivu).
While there has been progress on traceability and due diligence efforts concerning minerals produced in the Democratic Republic of the Congo, smuggling continues. In addition, elements of the Congolese army (Forces armées de la République démocratique du Congo, FARDC) and some armed groups remain involved in the minerals trade, potentially introducing conflict minerals into supply chains in the Democratic Republic of the Congo and neighbouring States. There was virtually no progress in addressing gold smuggling in 2014 in the Democratic Republic of the Congo and Uganda, and scant evidence of interest in traceability and due diligence by those Governments or by the Government of the United Arab Emirates. The illegal exploitation of and trade in wildlife products, including ivory, remains a serious problem involving armed groups, elements of the Congolese army, local poachers, and armed bands from South Sudan. FDLR and elements of the army remain involved in the production of and trade in charcoal and wood in North Kivu.
The Government of Burundi failed to notify the Security Council Committee established pursuant to resolution 1533 (2004) concerning the Democratic Republic of the Congo about the deployment of the Burundian army (Force de défense nationale, FDN) in South Kivu. Although this deployment ended in October, there were instances of sexual violence committed by the Burundian army and/or the Imbonerakure youth group during the deployment. Evidence also emerged of failure to notify the Committee about a 2012 delivery of ammunition from China to the Democratic Republic of the Congo. The diversion of arms and ammunition from the Congolese army to armed groups continued in 2014 and is indicative of broader problems faced by the Democratic Republic of the Congo in terms of stockpile management.