Humanitarian Implementation Plan (HIP) DIPECHO South America (ECHO/DIP/BUD/2013/93000) - Last update 07/11/2012 Version 1
The activities proposed hereafter are still subject to the adoption of the financing decision ECHO/WWD/BUD/2013/01000
Due to its geography, geology and climate South America is exposed to a wide range of disasters caused by hydro-meteorological and related hazards (including floods, landslides, mudflows, avalanches and windstorms), geological events (earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, tsunamis, etc.), droughts and related crises (including extreme temperatures and wildfires). Over the past six years, hydro-meteorological related disasters have proved to be the most recurrent in the region.
The most dramatic manifestation in the region is the El Niño event, attributable to warming in the eastern and central Pacific. Floods are very frequent in South American countries, not only due to the El Niño phenomenon, but also commonly generated by climatic anomalies. According to the 2004 United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) report "Reducing Disaster Risk: a challenge for development", the annual average number of people exposed to floods, considering the registered data from 1980-2000, is estimated at more than 48 million in South America. In 2007, more than one million people were affected by floods, mainly in Brazil, Bolivia and Peru. The situation was even more severe in 2008; Peru, Brazil, Argentina, Colombia suffered floods, as well as Bolivia and Ecuador where the situation was acute (more than 600,000 and 350,000 people respectively were affected and in need of humanitarian assistance). In 2012, more than 1.2 million people were affected by floods and landslides in Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru and Paraguay, caused by exceptional levels of rainfall in the Andean region.
The region is particularly vulnerable to earthquakes. The most significant registered in the last decade are: Chile February 2010 which was the 5th most powerful recorded on the Richter scale (8.8)2; Peru – Ica 2007 and Arequipa 2001.
Many volcanoes are active: in Ecuador, there were two consecutive eruptions of the Tungurahua volcano in 2006. During 2008, 2009, 2010 and 2011 Tungurahua and Reventador volcanoes presented levels of activity which caused concern. In April 2006, the Ubinas volcano eruption in Peru led to an evacuation process. In Colombia, concerns linked to the Galeras and Huila volcanoes are ongoing and Nevado del Ruiz erupted in 2012. In Chile, two volcanoes - the Llaima and the Chaitén - started an eruption process in 2008.