Sudan Assistance Bulletin Issue No. 31
Security Council passes resolution over Darfur
The UN Security Council adopted a resolution on 30 July 2004 paving the way for action against the Sudanese government in 30 days if it does not make progress on pledges to disarm the militias accused of attacking civilians in Darfur. The Council agreed to impose an arms embargo against the Janjaweed militias and all other non-governmental forces in Darfur, and warned that further action may be taken against Sudan if it does not show progress in achieving the commitments - most notably the pledges to disarm the Janjaweed and restore security to Darfur - it outlined in a joint communiqué with the UN on 3 July 2004. The measures include steps allowed under the UN Charter, such as issuing economic penalties, restricting transport and communications and severing diplomatic relations.
Concern over forced return
Humanitarian agencies remain concerned about the increasing pressure by the Sudanese government on the displaced populations to return to their villages of origin and to other relocation sites. In the majority of cases, IDPs are being induced and enticed by promises of food and non-food items at relocation sites. There are indications that government officials in West Darfur were planning to forcibly relocate IDPs from Mornei and Ardamata camps, and that thirteen heavy trucks carrying food had arrived in Geneina earmarked for distribution for IDPs returning to their villages.
US congress resolution calls Darfur situation 'genocide'
The US Congress unanimously passed a resolution on 22 July 2004 declaring the catastrophe in the region genocide. The resolution urged the US government to seriously consider multilateral or even unilateral intervention to prevent the genocide should the UN Security Council fail to act. The European Union warned Sudan on July 24 2004 that if the situation does not improve quickly, sanctions by the international community would inevitably follow. Sudanese leaders warned sanctions would only escalate and complicate the crisis in Darfur.
Negotiations break down between government and rebels
Talks between the Sudanese government and the rebel Sudan Liberation Army (SLA) and Justice and Equality Movement (JEM) in Addis Ababa broke down on 17 July 2004, two days after they had commenced with the aim of finding a political solution to the Darfur conflict. The rebels stated six preconditions for negotiations to resume: disarmament of the Janjaweed (including removal of those recruited into the police and army), provision of access for an inquiry into genocide charges, bringing criminals who committed genocide or ethnic cleansing to justice, unimpeded humanitarian access, freedom of prisoners of war and detainees and a neutral venue for future talks (Ethiopia was not deemed neutral).
Bahr El Ghazal humanitarian update
Poor rains, the expected failure of short cycle crops, conflict in the Lakes region and return movements have further compounded the humanitarian situation in Bahr El Ghazal. Insecurity around Lakes over the last 6 months has directly affected more than 70,000 people and indirectly up to 500,000. Livelihood activities have been disrupted throughout the region, with some markets closed, cultivation suspended or reduced, cattle stolen and movement of people and market items interrupted.
2. KEY ACTIVITIES
UN Representative on IDPs in Darfur
Dr. Francis Deng, Representative of the UN Secretary-General on Internally Displaced Persons, arrived in Sudan on 25 July 2004. Dr. Deng is currently travelling in the Darfur states and will report on his findings upon return to Khartoum.
Inaugural meeting for joint mechanism
The Joint Implementing Mechanism (JIM) held its first meeting on 17 July 2004 led by the Special Representative of the UN Secretary General, Jan Pronk, and by the Sudan's Minister of Foreign Affairs. Donor countries and various government ministries also participated in the meeting that discussed humanitarian access, security and protection of IDPs.
The UN and donor representatives reiterated that although in general humanitarian access had improved since the UN Secretary-General's visit, no progress had been reported on the security situation and protection of IDPs in the Darfur region. The representatives noted that fighting including aerial bombings was still ongoing, that daily reports were being received of government-allied militias, attacking, harassing, raping and murdering IDPs and that IDPs were reluctant to return to their villages due to these security and protection concerns. The participants agreed on a joint fact-finding investigation team to be dispatched to the Darfur region within the coming days as a follow up to the JIM meeting.
WHO Buruli Ulcer assessment team visits Equatoria
A WHO Buruli Ulcer verification team visited Tambura, Mabia and Nzara from 22 to 29 June 2004 to establish whether new cases are still being diagnosed in the areas, take specimens from the cases to verify the disease's existence in South Sudan, determine the state of the health facilities in Tambura, Mabia and Nzara and the health needs on the ground since the last Warning and Response Network (EWARN) response in 2003. Several cases of Buruli Ulcers were diagnosed during this period and specimens were taken from 49 patients. After visiting all the areas, the team concluded that the disease exists in South Sudan and needs urgent intervention.
UNICEF responds to polio case in Darfur
In response to the polio case reported in the Darfur area, UNICEF will organise Sub-National Immunisation Days for 27-29 July and 28-30 August 2004, in order to target the region's under-fives with the Polio vaccine.
Joint Emergency Assessment in Akobo
A joint assessment team comprising WFP, UNICEF, World Vision International (WVI), Medair, Oxfam, Action against Hunger-USA (ACF-USA), the joint peace mission of the Presbyterian Church of Sudan and the Upper Nile Peace and Development Foundation (PCOS/UNPDF) undertook a joint emergency assessment in Akobo, Upper Nile from 20 to 24 July 2004. The assessment report is currently being finalised.
The security situation in Akobo has greatly improved following the peace agreement signed between the (South Sudan Liberation Movement/Army (SSLM/A) and the SPLM/A in Akobo town on 25 July 2004. However, preliminary results indicate that a looming drought resulting from lack of rain as well as difficulties with health, water and education services has aggravated the hunger gap period, resulting in lack of food and poor health in the area.
3. FUNDING NEWS
The Netherlands have made a contribution of 120 heavy-duty trucks made available to WFP for transporting relief goods and food supplies into Darfur. The total value of the fleet, including spare parts and a maintenance contingency, is €4 million.
Netherlands previously announced funding amounting to €3 million towards the crisis in Darfur and it has been allocated as follows:
- €1.5 million to WFP for assistance towards Darfur Crisis
- €1.2 million to UNHCR for assistance towards Darfur Crisis
- €299,700 for OCHA for coordination of humanitarian activities in Darfur
The United States Government has made the following contributions and pledges towards assistance in Sudan:
- US$400,000 to the International Organization for Migration (IOM) in Sudan for a "Preparatory Assistance Program for IDP Return and Reintegration" in response to the CAP 2004
- 4320 metric tons of emergency food assistance to WFP for Sudanese refugees in Chad (cost US$4,134,400)
- US$1,153,938 to CARE for Health, Water and Sanitation, Logistics and Coordination activities in Darfur.
- US$109,240 to Tuffs University for research in Darfur
- US$900,000 to FAO for food security and agriculture activities in Darfur
- US$2,850,000 to UNICEF for Health, Water and Sanitation in Darfur
- US$500,000 to UN Joint Logistics Centre for coordination and logistics activities in Darfur
- US$276,639 worth of relief commodities to WVI for Darfur
- US$925,000 to WFP for flight operations and coordination
- US$609,075 worth of relief commodities to Darfur
- Airlift of relief commodities in Darfur at a cost of US$985,411
Total US government funding towards the Darfur crisis has now reached US$139 million.
Spain has made the following pledges towards the Darfur Crisis:
- US$487,211 worth of food aid to WFP for Darfur
- US$3,555 to UNHCR for assistance to Sudanese refugees in Chad
As part of an earlier announced pledge of £15 million towards the Darfur crisis the Department for International Development (DFID) has contributed £1,032,500 to Medair for emergency assistance to IDPs through the provision of primary healthcare, improved access to clean water and improved sanitation in West Darfur.
In addition to earlier pledges, DFID is setting aside £150 million for 3 years beginning April 2005 for emergency assistance, recovery and development programmes in Sudan. This will be used to provide basic services to populations in need, maintain peace and stability and help improve governance and policies. Longer-term development assistance will become available only after a comprehensive peace agreement in Sudan is reached and there is a significant improvement in the situation in Darfur.
European Commission's Humanitarian Aid Office (ECHO)
ECHO has provided €258,000 to MSF-Holland for assistance to Sudanese refugees in Chad, whereby the €4 million funding decision from 31 March 2004 has been fully allocated.
ECHO announced on 12 July 2004 that is has earmarked a further €18 million in humanitarian aid to the victims of the Darfur conflict. A total of €10 million will be allocated to address the needs of displaced populations and other civilians inside the greater Darfur region affected by the conflict. Another €8 million will be dedicated to the needs of the refugees from Darfur who have fled to Chad.
Germany has through ASD provided mats, blankets, mosquito nets and hygiene materials worth €250,000 to Sudanese refugees in Chad
In response to the Darfur crisis Switzerland has decided on the following contributions:
- US$400,000 to WFP for emergency assistance to Sudanese refugees and the most vulnerable host communities in North Eastern Chad
- US$400,000 to Medair for emergency assistance in West Darfur
- US$40,000 to a local NGO specialised in assisting victims of sexual violence
Finland has contributed €400,000 to WFP towards emergency assistance to Sudanese refugees and the most vulnerable host communities in North Eastern Chad.
France will put a Transall aircraft at the United Nations' disposal for three months for humanitarian aid transportation to Darfur at a cost of €2 million. Further to this France will provide the following support for humanitarian assistance to the Darfur crisis:
- €150,000 to Medecins Du Monde (MDM) for health and medical activities in Darfur
- €1 million to WFP for food aid for Sudanese refugees in Chad
- €1 million for UNHCR support of Sudanese refugees in Chad and for humanitarian assistance by international NGOs in Darfur
In response to the Darfur crisis Lithuania has pledged €28,962 to OCHA for coordination of humanitarian activities in Darfur.
Sweden has made the following pledges towards activities in Darfur:
- €107,000 for Save the Children Sweden towards urgent relief for protecting children and children's rights; rebuilding schools in Tawila/Kutum as well as school material and education in affected areas
- €90,000 to Swedish Mission Council in support of IDPs returning to Mukjar in the region of West Darfur
- €1,383,500 to MSF towards increased access to health facilities to the population in general and to IDPs in particular
- US$130,000 and secondment of one observer in support of the African Union lead peace monitoring operation in Darfur
United Arab Emirates
United Arab Emirates has provided 35 tons of relief materials for Darfur worth US$ 136,910.
The Czech Republic has contributed €31,250 through MFA to assist Sudanese refugees in Chad.
Canada has contributed US$746,269 to UNHCR and US$597,015 to MSF-Canada. Both contributions are for emergency assistance to Sudanese refugees in Chad.
Saudi Arabia has provided 81 metric tons of relief materials for Darfur worth US$ 813,688.
Norway has made a contribution of US$1.6 million in humanitarian assistance to Darfur and to refugees from Darfur in Chad to be channelled through the Norwegian Red Cross. This contribution will enable the Norwegian Red Cross to send equipment and delegates to run two hospitals in Darfur and to establish a health clinic in one of the refugee camps in Chad. Further to this Norway has also contributed US$895,523 to WFP for food aid in Darfur.
4. GEOGRAPHICAL NEWS
WFP assisted about 167,220 beneficiaries in the Upper Nile/Jonglei region with over 2,800 metric tons of assorted food commodities. Food aid distributions took place in Leech, Latjor, Sobat, Phou and Bieh States, and in Pochalla, Boma (Pibor) and Bor Counties. Insecurity in Shilluk Kingdom and in parts of Leech, Phou and Bieh States hampered WFP's food distribution efforts.
Alari: World Relief (WR) has confirmed that it has 4,000 mosquito nets and 1,000 cooking pots to distribute in Alari. The distribution date is yet to be set. A Medair team is ready to drill one borehole and begin a sanitation programme, and is currently waiting for WFP to deliver the Food for Work (FFW) they requested. WFP expressed concern over the provision of double rations, and Medair and WFP are yet to sort out the issue before the planned interventions can be made.
Shilluk Kingdom: Tearfund has resumed the provision of health services in Oriny, and has set up public health care units (PHCUs), Kala-azaar clinics and a medical laboratory in the area. The agency is working in conjunction with UNICEF to get the cold chain in Aburoc functioning. Plans are underway to access other locations in Shilluk Kingdom cleared by OLS Security as soon as possible, as the joint cross-border assessment plan is yet to take off.
Bahr El Ghazal
WFP food aid distributions took place at various relief centres in Twic, Gogrial and Aweil Counties (except in Aweil South County). Some 183,930 beneficiaries, comprising of mainly returnees and the vulnerable resident population, received about 2,750 metric tons of assorted food commodities. Flooding rivers caused by recent rainfall in the region hindered access by road to eight relief centres in the region.
WFP is planning to distribute food targeting 8,000 people in Cuibet and 7,000 people in Rumbek as soon as possible. According to WFP, four staff members based in the region have been evacuated, resulting in a shortage of manpower to cover the work as planned.
Wau: Hope Agency for Relief and Development (HARD) rehabilitated the 90 km road between Baau and Bararud in Wau County. The exercise involved 400 participants (300 men and 100 women).
Rumbek: The Sudan Relief and Rehabilitation Council (SRRC) has identified 15 national monitors for training in Rumbek. The training will be conducted by the Norwegian Refugee Council (NRC) and SRRC and will focus on monitoring returns at the points of entry. However, the funds to carry out the entire training and follow-up of the monitors in the field are inadequate. OCHA, NRC and SRRC are looking at ways of raising funds in order to ensure the training and output is effective.
Southern Blue Nile
Flight clearance denials to Southern Blue Nile for relief activities still deprive about 40,000 needy people of food aid for the sixth months.
WFP assisted some 55,340 beneficiaries from Rashad, Kadugli, Dilling and Lagawa Counties with 490 metric tons of food aid. WFP is supporting returnees with food aid in the region. There are about 80,500 returnees in Dilling and Lagawa Counties concentrated in Demama and West Kadugli payams. Heavy rains in the region have affected movements of WFP and other NGO staff by road.
Medair, working in the Western Jebels, are continuing their mosquito net distribution. Following the success of the drama programme, Medair hope to conduct cross-line training, in conjunction with Sudanese Red Cross (SRC), in Kadugli. The objective is to train both health promoters and members of the community on various health topics and how to present these issues to the communities.
Samaritans Purse, in the Western Jebels, continues with the construction of permanent school structures in Tiemen Saraf (Tiemen Payam), Julud Bashir (Julud Payam) and Tulushi Saida (Tulushi Payam). The construction involves community participation.
WFP is currently undertaking a general food distribution in Julud in Dilling County and Hajar Hatab in Rashad County. Figures are not yet available, though the agency is hoping to target over 49,000 beneficiaries in this period.
Save the Children US (SCF-US) had an official opening of its Kawalib Primary Health Care Centre, Kawalib Payam, on 13 July 2004.
WFP, together with its implementing agencies, has begun food distribution in Kadugli. Some 402 metric tons of food comprising cereal, oil and salt will be distributed to 15,305 beneficiaries living in 34 villages around Kadugli.
North Darfur: Agencies in El Fasher were called to a meeting at the Wali's residence on 19 July 2004 and were informed that the government has established a plan for the return of 200,000 IDPs to six or eight urban settings. Agencies at the meeting were requested to provide a 'return package' to the IDPs that would relocate to these locations at the point of return.
5. TRAINING AND SURVEYS
TB training in Equatoria
As part of its policy to strengthen the capacity of health personnel in South Sudan, WHO conducted a Tuberculosis (TB) training workshop in Yei from 30 June to 3 July 2004. TB field officers from Malteser TB/Sleeping Sickness Hospital, Samaritan's Purse Hospital in Lui, Zoa TB/Leprosy Clinic in Katigiri and Comboni Missionary Sisters' TB/Leprosy Hospital in Nzara attended the workshop. The objective of the workshop was to strengthen the capacity of TB field coordinators in the management and control of TB, introduce TB field coordinators to WHO principals of national TB control programmes and to enlighten TB field coordinators on proper recording, monitoring and reporting procedures with the aim of improving the management and control of TB in South Sudan.
Teacher training in Nuba Mountains
Teacher training began on 5 July 2004 at the newly constructed Dilling County Teachers' College in Julud Mundri. The centre was constructed and is funded by Samaritan's Purse. The three-year programme currently has about 40 students. Samaritan's Purse is also constructing a community centre adjacent to the training centre.
Community health training in Upper Nile
A group of 69 (39 men and 30 women) Community Health Workers (CHW) were involved in four training courses in various aspects of community health services conducted by Medair and Sudan Medical Care (SMC) in North and South Bor Counties. The communities in these counties will benefit from an increased coverage for Expanded Programme in Immunization (EPI) activities with the additional trained CHWs. The CHWs will also educate the communities on prevention of guinea worm infection. Mother and child care services, patients and drug management will also improve in the communities.
Teacher training course in Bahr El Ghazal
A teacher training course in Aweil West and Rashad counties was conducted by International Aid Services (IAS) and Norwegian Church Aid (NCA). The trainees have completed the first term of their educational calendar. The institutes had enrolled a total of 200 trainees (162 men and 38 women). The graduates will be posted to various counties upon completion of the course.
Income generating course in Nuba Mountains and Bahr El Ghazal
Nuba Relief Rehabilitation and Development Organization (NRRDO) and Diocese of Rumbek (DOR) completed two training courses in income generating activities in Rashad and Rumbek Counties. The program targeted primarily women-headed and vulnerable households. Some 69 trainees (6 men and 63 women) were trained. The graduates are now engaged in tailoring, sewing and soap making. The soap products are marketed in Rumbek and the surrounding villages.
6. IDP PERSPECTIVE
At the same time as hopes for peace in southern Sudan increased with the return of IDPs to their respective areas, the issue of return in Darfur generates heated discussion between those who wish the IDPs to return and the IDPs themselves.
The UN interviewed over twenty IDPs in the camps of Mornei and Sisi in western Darfur. The IDPs originally come from villages in the proximity of the growing town of Mornei. The villages are Soye and Abdue in the East, Sulma in the South, Maringo in the West and Kargulu and Rumalia in the North.
When asked about whether they would like to return to their former villages, they said, "We will not return to our villages unless we are assured and confident that we would be safe". When asked why they replied, "We have lost all our wealth to the Janjaweed. They have taken our cows, horses, money and food. They have killed our sons, brothers and relatives. Some of the dead bodies are not buried till today. They have raped our daughters and wives. They have burnt all our houses. So we have nothing in the villages. Why should we return to receive the same treatment again? If we are sent by force we will resist by all means. It is better to die here and be buried by our relatives than go back to the insecure villages".
However, they also voiced concern about being in the camps. They said, "We are relatively safe in Mornei, but we live in fear because the Janjaweed are around us, we cannot move beyond four kilometres outside the camp because we are afraid of the Janjaweed. Recently, a boy was shot in the leg at the valley while collecting firewood".