Fact sheet - Chad

Report
from UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs
Published on 20 Jul 2010
The crisis in Chad

-        The food insecurity and malnutrition crisis affects at least 1.6 million people in the drought-affected Sahel belt, more specifically in Kanem, Bahr El Gazal, Guera and Batha regions..

-        Last year's poor rains resulted in failed crops and a severe drop in harvest and livestock production in many parts of the country, exacerbating existing vulnerability.

-        As a result, the situation has severe, immediate and long term effects for both the local population and their livestock.

-        Successive inadequate rainy seasons and the effects of climate change, particularly creeping desertification further deteriorate coping strategies during the lean season (July-September).

Nutrition/ Health

-        According to WFP's Emergency Food Security Assessment conducted in March 2010, this accounts for 60 percent of households in the region .

-        Some 50,000 out of a total of 102,000 children nationwide suffer from Severe Acute Malnutrition (SAM).

-        This situation led to a severe drop in harvest and livestock production in many parts of the country. Cereal production was reduced by 34% in the whole country in comparison to 2008-2009.

-        There is a severe lack of adequate health infrastructure, trained health personnel and sufficient supply of essential drugs that could treat complicated diseases and contain worsening nutrition related cases among children.

-        The access to referral health structures is limited by lack of transportation and communication infrastructure: For example, patients needs to travel up to 200 km in order to reach health facilities in some areas.

Food insecurity:

-        About 60 percent of households, or 1.6 million people, in the Western Sahelian Chad are food insecure.

-        Child mortality had increased from 2.0/10,000/day to 2.3/10,000/day in just one year.

-        According to an ACF nutrition survey in December 2009, malnutrition rates were already well above emergency thresholds (from 19.9 percent in Kanem up to 26.9 percent in Bahr el-Ghazal).

-        These rates are likely to be even higher during the current lean season.

Nutrition:

-        From January to May 2010, a total number of 6,508 children were admitted to the UNICEF-supported therapeutic feeding programs in Kanem and Barh-El-Ghazal regions.

-        The number of new admissions of children suffereing from severe acute malnutrition has doubled compared to 2009 (2,900 children in 2009 vs. 6,508 children in 2010).

-        Cases of malnutrition are often complicated by diseases such as malaria, diarrhea, respiratory illnesses that could be treated in health centers if adequate resources were in place.

-        The information collected in the Kanem region from January to April 2010 shows an abnormal fatality rate of 2.24% in the Ambulatory feeding centers, which indicates difficulties that heath centers have to address diseases associated with malnutrition.

Humanitarian response

Although a significant response is underway, more urgent attention is needed from the Government of Chad, the humanitarian community and the international community more broadly.

-        In light of the urgency of the situation as confirmed by the June nutrition survey, the humanitarian response in the country needs to be significantly scaled up. The humanitairan effrots are ongoing and include (but not limited to):

-        WHO in partnership with the Ministry of Health currently training health care providers and in the development of a National strategy for Nutrition

-        UNICEF and WHO are currently working with the Ministry of Health for the revision of the national protocol for managing acute malnutrition.

-        UNICEF in partnership with WFP will support the implementation of blanket feeding to improve access to food to children aged 6 to 23 months in Kanem and Bahr el Ghazar.

-        UNICEF is supporting 126 feeding centers in Chad (106 Outpatient Therapeutic Feeding Centers and 20 Inpatient Therapeutic Feeding Centers).

-        FAO, in partnership with the government of CHAD (ONDR, SODELAC, Ministry of Agriculture, CRAs and CLA) and NGOs especially in the eastern Sahel (CONCERN WORLDWIDE, OXFAM INTERMON, FPT, IRD, WCDO,) distributed seed kits to vulnerable households in the Sahelian zone: Kanem, Bahr El Gazal, Hadjer Lamis, Batha.

-        FAO in partnership with the Department of Animal Husbandry organized the sale at subsidized prices of supplementary food for livestock, supporting projects to reduce food insecurity and supporting the development of vegetable production in Ouaddai.

-        WFP provides blanket feeding for pregnant women and nursing mothers as well as supplementary feeding of moderately malnourished children.

-        The number of health centers supported by WFP has increased from 36 in March to 52 in June and is expected to be around 140 in the coming weeks.

-        In May, some 6,700 children and 12,000 women received assistance in the Western-Sahelian regions through supplementary and blanket feeding (5,200 and 8,400 in early 2010). The number is expected to increase significantly with new supplementary feeding centers opening.

-        Through general food distributions, WFP is planning to reach some 605,000 people identified as the most vulnerable by the Emergency Food Security Assessment until the end of July - some 377,000 of them have already received food assistance.

Financing

-        WHO needs 2 million US $ in order to improve the accessibility and quality of health services offered in 4 regions affected by malnutrition and prevent death that result from severe malnutrition diseases that can be supported by health facilities. FAO needs 8.7 million US$ to support to farmers and agro-pastoralists , Improve the health conditions of animals and distribute 19,000 goats in 3800 vulnerable farmers or agro-pastoralists, support market gardening, Support to 8600 vulnerable families have access to land Ouaddai to practice crop gardening and support the coordination and monitoring of interventions. UNICEF needs 9.5 million US$ to treat 102,037 children with severe acute malnutrition in 8 regions and 50,000 children with severe acute malnutrition that need life-saving treatment in the Sahelian belt and provide blanket feeding for the first time in the country for over 43,000 children. WFP needs US$22.5 million to carry out all planned activities including blanket feeding of about 162,500 children below the age of two.

-        Funding for the 2010 Chad Consolidated Appeal (CAP) amounts to 45% of the requirements of US$542 million. The Mid-Year Review requires $297 million for the remainder of 2010. A large part of this amount is critical in order to address additional needs related to the food insecurity and malnutrition crisis.

Priorities

To address the most urgent needs of the affected populations humanitarian actors must rapidly reinforce their capacity to respond and mobilize additional resources inorder to address the crisis while saving lives. However, an insufficient number of humanitarian actors are presently in the affected areas and there is an an urgent need for additional presence of humanitarian actors to respond adequately to this crisis.

UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs:

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