WFP Appeal for the Caucasus 1 Jul 1997 - 30 Jun 1998
FOOD AID NEEDS
Assistance to Displaced Persons, Other War Affected Populations and Vulnerable Groups
Table of Contents
Caucasus Logistics Advisory Unit
Objectives of WFP Assistance
Mode of Implementation
Nutritional Considerations and Food Basket
Objectives of WFP Assistance
Mode of Implementation
Nutritional Considerations and Food Basket
Objectives of WFP Assistance
Mode of Implementation
Nutritional Considerations and Food Basket
More detailed information on specific situations referred to in this Appeal is available from WFP. Enquiries should be directed to Robert
Hauser, Head, Eastern Europe and CIS Unit, OMC, WFP Headquarters, Via Cristoforo Colombo 426, 00145, Roma, Italy. Tel: +39 6 2868
2577. Fax: +39 6 2868 2836. E-mail: email@example.com.
The World Food Programme (WFP) has been pursuing emergency food aid operations in the three Transcaucasian republics of Armenia, Azerbaijan and Georgia over the last three years, distributing a total of 115,400 tons of food. A separate operation had been set up in the North Caucasus in early 1995 to provide immediate assistance to persons displaced in the aftermath of the Chechnya crisis. While the WFP Chechnya operation is expected to be phased out this autumn, following a transitional political settlement and the gradual return of displaced persons, the Transcaucasus will require a continuation of relief aid for approximately another two years.
Although fighting has ceased throughout the Transcaucasus, the conflicts over Abkhazia and Nagorno-Karabakh have reached a "no peace - no war" stalemate. The hundreds of thousands of displaced persons are neither able to return to their places of origin nor be integrated where they have temporarily relocated.
As a result of this impasse, more than 1.5 million refugees and Internally Displaced Persons (IDP), i.e. nearly ten percent of the total population, remain stranded in temporary shelter throughout the Transcaucasus, with barely any means of livelihood. They represent a heavy burden on social welfare systems, which have been considerably weakened by the virtual collapse of regional economies in the aftermath of ethnic strife and disruption of intra-Soviet trade links. All three Caucasus republics are still classified as Low-Income-Food-Deficit countries by the Food and Agriculture Organisation (FAO) and as Low-Income Economies by the World Bank. After having passed the nadir in the mid-1990s, all three economies are slowly recovering, with benefits for certain sectors of the population, including a few displaced persons who managed to integrate themselves. However, social welfare schemes remain too weak to ensure a minimum subsistence level for the bulk of the displaced population. Even worse, payments which have long been reduced to below-subsistence levels and are frequently paid in arrears, if at all, have created an additional group of destitute persons: precisely those pensioners, disabled persons, orphans, as well as single mothers, who have to rely on social welfare provisions.
WFP is committed to continue assisting the most vulnerable and hungry poor among the resident and displaced population with basic supplementary food rations. At the recent CIS conference of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) and the International Organization for Migration (IOM), there was consensus on the need to continue humanitarian food distributions to vulnerable groups.
Until mid 1997, WFP operations in Armenia, Azerbaijan and Georgia were exclusively financed through funds received in response to United Nations Consolidated Inter-Agency Appeals for the Caucasus. The present WFP Appeal ties in directly with the 1996/97 UN Caucasus Appeal and donors are invited to provide further support for WFP's on-going relief aid operations. While carry-over stocks and pledges will allow WFP to pursue the operations until end August in Armenia, October in Georgia and December in Azerbaijan, outstanding requirements until 30 June 1998 remain at 33,919 tons, or 15.7 million dollars (in this document dollars refers to United States dollars).
Because of the lead-times required between the confirmation of a pledge and the arrival of food at WFP warehouses, WFP strongly urges donors to come forward with further pledges before the end of the summer to avoid breaks in the food pipelines.
The relief context in which WFP has been operating in the Caucasus over the last three years has hardly changed, but for the first signs of an incipient economic recovery. Food availability has improved, following increases in domestic cereal production and commercial imports. This positive trend, however, has failed to make food more accessible to large parts of the vulnerable population whose salaries and state allowances are too low and irregular to enable them to purchase a basic diet, particularly since the abolition of bread subsidies. The problem of food-insecurity has, thus, remained, although affecting fewer people than at the start of the emergency.
On the basis of experience drawn during the last three years and in line with recent developments, WFP operations have also evolved:
¨Internally Displaced Persons (IDPs) and refugees remain without any prospects for either return or integration. This group continues to be the focus of WFP relief assistance. In addition, vulnerability resulting from an inability to generate personal income and reliance on inadequate and irregular social welfare provisions have also become a focus for WFP assistance. Groups affected in this way are differentiated further by their degree of food insecurity, as determined through household surveys (and the PAROS system in Armenia, which means 'beacon' and defines a system developed to asses vulnerability), in order to narrow the targeted beneficiary group to those among the vulnerable who are food-insecure. Streamlined targeting criteria were elaborated and applied to both the resident and the displaced population.
¨Initially, WFP responded to growing food insecurity with relief feeding projects, targeted at the most vulnerable sectors of the population. Recently, WFP has also moved towards Food-For-Work (FFW) projects: first in Armenia and now in Georgia and Azerbaijan. The inherent transition from pure relief towards rehabilitation activities helps create conditions for greater self-reliance and the phase-out of WFP assistance in the Caucasus. FFW activities lead to a decrease in the number of beneficiaries targeted under the relief feeding programme, by providing the means for people to raise personal income and improve food production.
¨Until the spring of 1996, WFP implemented food distributions through the International Federation of the Red Cross and the Red Crescent Societies (IFRC) and Non Governmental Organisations (NGOs), some of whom had the comparative advantage of having had a longer presence on the ground. With efforts at streamlined targeting to the hungry poor among the displaced and resident population, WFP has also shifted to direct implementation, taking over responsibility for secondary delivery and distribution to all beneficiaries. An exception was made for the NGO World Vision International (WVI) in Azerbaijan with whom WFP has continued its close and effective partnership. Direct implementation has helped WFP to streamline operational procedures, enhance its monitoring capacity and render the operation more cost-effective.
¨Direct implementation and FFW have provided the opportunity to develop and strengthen women's role in the Caucasus food aid programmes, both as "implementors" as well as beneficiaries. An increasing number of female staff have been recruited and are now responsible for food distribution and monitoring. Enhanced efforts have been made to target women directly and to design FFW projects that engage women in training and productive activities.
¨Both the Caucasus' geo-political context and the derelict state of its logistics infrastructure prompted WFP to engage in logistics support facilities to ensure that large tonnages of programme and relief food aid reach their beneficiaries in an effective and timely manner. Traditional supply routes to the Caucasus had been cut with the onset of ethnic conflicts in Abkhazia, Nagorno-Karabakh and Chechnya, inhibiting cross-border trade between Turkey and Armenia, Russia and Georgia, as well as Russia and Azerbaijan. In the absence of adequate alternative transport routes, Georgian ports and railways became the gateway for humanitarian aid deliveries to the whole Transcaucasus region, although the local infrastructure was not adequately equipped.
¨Based on its earlier, successful experience in Southern Africa, WFP set up a Caucasus Logistics Advisory Unit (CLAU) to support the rehabilitation of regional logistics infrastructure through the provision of spare parts and equipment to ports and railways and the reconstruction of railway bridges at Natanebi and Banusha. Another major focus of CLAU activities was to monitor and coordinate the movement of relief aid shipments. Finally, CLAU purchased ten diesel locomotives from the Russian Federation in 1995 to ensure basic functioning of the railways system in winter, when electricity is in short supply.
¨With the main rehabilitation projects at ports and railways completed and the Transcaucasus traffic routes now performing in a reliable manner, WFP phased-out CLAU on 30 June 1997. The Rail Operations Centre will continue to be operated by the three Caucasian railways supervised by Transport Corridor Europe Caucasus Asia (TRACECA).
Caucasus Logistics Advisory Unit
The Caucasus Logistics Advisory Unit (CLAU) was established by WFP in October 1993 as a food aid logistics mechanism aiming at co-ordinating relief shipments and optimising the use of the regional port and rail systems.
In mid-1994 WFP's port and rail projects were established to improve the transport system from the ports of Poti and Batumi by rail to the various destinations in the region.
The CLAU port project identified key areas of assistance including managerial support and material inputs to enable the ports of Poti and Batumi to cope with the anticipated cargo volumes.
The objective of the CLAU rail project was to provide technical and managerial assistance, to set up a monitoring organisation, to improve communication and to provide financial and material assistance needed to improve the rail throughput of the region. Phase I of this project concentrated on the critical needs for basic train operation and essential cargo movement. The reconstruction of the collapsed Natanebi bridge was also an important part of the first phase of the project. The second phase of the project included the purchase of 12 diesel locomotives and equipment to ensure safe and efficient movement of cargo also during frequent winter electricity cuts. The objective of the third and last phase of the rail project was to consolidate the gains made during the last two years in order to avoid the rail system falling back to inefficient levels.
As part of the CLAU activities WFP operates since January 1994 a King Air 200 aircraft in support of the humanitarian aid and donor community in the Caucasus Region. This aircraft with the capability to carry 11 passengers has and is operating on a standard schedule throughout the year.
With the transition from a phase of emergency to one of development CLAU successfully completed its mandate and phased out in June 1997.
Armenia declared its independence in 1991, before having recovered from a devastating earthquake in 1988 which killed 25,000 people, made 530,000 homeless and destroyed 40 percent of the country's means of production. There are about 157,000 people still accommodated in temporary shelters and the earthquake prompted large-scale migration. Discouraged by Armenia's economic demise, an estimated 700,000 Armenians (mostly men) left between 1990 and 1995 in search of employment opportunities abroad. Families have been split and women exposed to additional hardship.
The socio-economic situation has been severely affected by the unsettled dispute over Nagorno Karabakh and Turkey's subsequent blockade against Armenia. Little progress has been made so far in defining a political solution to the enclave's disputed political status, despite on-going mediation efforts through the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE). The 1994 cease-fire is fragile, being occasionally disrupted by acts of hostilities, and as many as 340,000 refugees and 72,000 Internally Displaced Persons (IDPs) remain displaced.
Heavily dependent on intra-Soviet trade links, Armenia's economy virtually collapsed in the aftermath of the Soviet Union's break-up. In 1994, GNP had dropped by 60 percent from 1991, and unemployment in the industrial sector had reached 60 percent. The economic crisis has had a devastating impact on the country's capacity to meet basic health care needs. The health status of the population has deteriorated continuously and people living on minimum salaries and state allowances have been unable to have access to medical services. A recent survey, undertaken by European Community Humanitarian Office (ECHO), United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF) and several NGOs, confirms that 17 percent of the population are unable to access medical services and that life expectancy has drastically decreased over the past five years.
Armenia has traditionally been dependent on food imports from other parts of the ex-Soviet Union. The country's surface consists 80 percent of uplands, unsuitable for cultivation. Domestic grain production covers only 30-40 percent of requirements, and corresponding figures for dairy and meat are hardly more encouraging. Drastic economic decline in the 1990s have caused further setbacks for the agricultural sector.
The outlook for the 1997 crop is poor due to floods and hail in late spring. The overall cereal requirement for 1997 is estimated at 671,000 tons. With an expected domestic production of only 293,000 tons, there is a likely deficit of 378,000 tons. Commercial imports are anticipated at only 109,000 tons, leaving an outstanding requirement of 269,000 tons to be covered by concessional credits and food aid.
With most subsidies being eliminated, prices of food and other basic commodities and services have risen sharply. Bread prices increased 34-fold from six Drams per kg in late-1994 to Drams 205 in May 1997. At the same time, real wages decreased by 85 percent during the period 1989-1995, which has stirred social tension.
In light of the structural cereal deficit and a GNP per capita of 608 dollars in 1994 (World Bank Statistics), Armenia has been classified as Low-Income Food-Deficit country by FAO and a Low-Income economy by the World Bank (WB).
Government Policy and Actions
Supported primarily by the WB and the International Monetary Fund (IMF), the Government's efforts at political and economic reform have already produced some positive results. Economic growth has been recorded at five percent annually since 1994 and is expected to continue at an annual rate of seven percent in 1997/98. The Government recently entered into an agreement with IMF on credits worth 150 million dollars to implement a second phase of its economic reform programme over the next three years. The program will include drastic reductions in the size of the state sector. The WB has provided additional assistance under a Structural Adjustment Credit, aimed at reconstructing and privatising enterprises and improving social security to boost economic activities and create additional jobs. Loans have also been secured, primarily from USA, for cereal imports and farm inputs, and the Ministry of Agriculture provided extra support to farmers for the spring crop.
Yet, the implementation of macro-economic reforms is increasing the hardships among the poor strata of the population. Large sectors of society have become extremely vulnerable, since budgetary constraints do not allow for sufficient state allowances to cover basic needs. The Government has been making efforts to cushion the negative impact of economic reform through raising social security payments (e.g. child allowances of 2.8 dollars), which are, however, quickly eroded by inflation.
Objectives of WFP Assistance
A total of 44,000 tons of WFP food have significantly improved the nutritional status of people at risk, including refugees, IDPs, pensioners, orphans, disabled persons, large families and women-headed households, since the first distribution in 1993. Regular supplementary food rations have ensured part of the minimum calorie intake for 250,000 vulnerable persons (including refugees) during 1996/97. These targeted food distributions will continue, though at a reduced scale, in line with the on-going process of streamlining beneficiaries according to vulnerability and food insecurity criteria. Even though economic improvements are expected to continue, further relief food aid will be required in the near future, at a scale slightly reduced from 250,000 beneficiaries to 220,000.
WFP envisages a phase-out of its assistance by spring 1999, when the economy is expected to have picked up sufficiently to overcome the persisting consequences of the earthquake and the refugee influx, and provide a basic social safety net for the vulnerable population.
WFP will also continue to use Food-For-Work (FFW) as a self-targeting food distribution mechanism which will create short- to medium-term employment. FFW includes activities that enhance household food security and reduce environmental degradation through renovation of irrigation systems and reforestation. They are also geared towards improving the living conditions of refugees, school children and other vulnerable groups by means of rehabilitating schools, clinics, kindergartens and refugee shelters. An increase in FFW activities is part of WFP's strategy to allow for an orderly phase-out of relief distribution.
In 1991, the Government, supported by United States Agency for International Development (USAID), initiated a poverty assessment system, known as PAROS (meaning "Beacon" in Armenian), which has been extensively used by WFP and NGOs to streamline targeting of humanitarian aid. PAROS assesses the vulnerability of each household/family, taking into account:
i) family composition, including the presence of household members belonging to socially vulnerable groups;
ii) household income level, including assets; and,
iii) location and conditions of accommodation.
Numerical values are assigned to each variable and a vulnerability index is calculated for each household. The higher the index, the more vulnerable the family is considered. PAROS is a dynamic system and is updated on a regular basis. When a household receives humanitarian assistance, the value of the assistance is calculated and considered as part of the family income.
Registration with PAROS is voluntary, and 700,000 households out of an estimated total of 850,000 are registered. The most vulnerable population has been estimated at 96,000 households, or 400,000 individuals (including refugees and IDPs) who are currently assisted with relief food aid from WFP and NGOs.
According to the PAROS system, 13 percent of the population are extremely poor, with an income of less than 17 dollars per month, covering only 50 percent of a minimum monthly food basket. Within this group, many (e.g. pensioners, single mothers and their children, and the disabled) have to make a living on minimal state allowances of less than eight dollars per month. The diet is mainly limited to bread, potatoes, rice and cabbage, and supplementary food assistance is needed to maintain nutritional status. The situation of refugees, IDPs and earthquake victims is further aggravated by deplorable living conditions in temporary accommodation, providing neither appropriate hygiene nor sufficient shelter during the harsh winter months.
Geographically, the highest concentration of vulnerable people is found in the earthquake zone in the north (especially in urban centers), the areas bordering Azerbaijan and in the far south. Despite this geographic concentration, no area in Armenia can be completely excluded from humanitarian assistance schemes.
Initially, WFP food assistance was mainly targeted at refugees and IDPs. As part of the resident population is suffering from almost as much hardship as the displaced, new targeting mechanisms were put in place to ensure equitable distribution of relief food on the basis of assessed vulnerability to food shortages rather than demographic categories.
At present, WFP food distributions primarily target refugees, IDPs and other vulnerable people in the earthquake zone, including orphans, families with more than four children, disabled persons, dwellers in temporary accommodation, lonely pensioners and pensioners who look after children. The overall WFP target group comprises 220,000 people, including 90,000 displaced persons, with an average of 59 percent being women. An additional 150,000 vulnerable persons are expected to receive food aid through NGOs and other organizations, such as IFRC which is targeting assistance to hospitals, orphanages and boarding schools.
Mode of Implementation
WFP food commodities are predominantly purchased in Europe and USA and then shipped to the Georgian ports of Poti and Batumi for onward passage by rail to WFP Extended Delivery Points (EDP) in Yerevan and Vanadzor. Secondary delivery to state shops is arranged through WFP-rented trucks.
WFP food is distributed in the form of take-home rations, including a special winter food preservation project for women, and in FFW projects.
In the past, WFP implemented its relief food distributions through NGOs, mainly Women Aid International (WAI) and CARE. From April 1996 onwards, WFP has been distributing food directly to beneficiaries. Distribution plans are prepared in collaboration with the Armenian Humanitarian Assistance Committee (HAC), the Ministry of Social Welfare, UNHCR and the Fund for Armenian Relief (FAR). Radio and newspaper announcements are made when food is delivered. Beneficiary lists are posted in shop windows, together with information on the composition of the ration and the dates of distribution. Final distributions are carried out in state stores under the supervision of WFP monitors. More than half of the staff handling food are women.
Targeting is based on lists prepared using PAROS in collaboration with the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR), which has ensured that all refugees/IDPs are incorporated into the PAROS database and streamlined according to the same vulnerability criteria as the resident population. This policy has been a safeguard that the resident vulnerable population and refugees are treated in an equitable manner, and that tensions are kept to a minimum.
WFP will also implement self-sufficiency activities to be particularly targeted at women. Vulnerable single mothers and elderly women will be assisted in a Winter Food Preservation Programme. Extra rations of edible oil and sugar will preserve foodstuffs of a high nutritional value during winter.
FFW schemes were initiated on a pilot basis in 1996. At present, a total of 20,000 participants are benefiting from community-based small-scale projects, drawing on 1,460 tons of food commodities donated by Switzerland. The projects have been identified jointly with local councils and communities, and cover a wide range of activities. These included tree planting, nursery foundation and rehabilitation, repair of secondary roads, schools/kindergartens, construction/repair of potable water pipelines and sewerage systems; cleaning and repairing irrigation canals has improved soil conditions and household food security of local farmers. FFW has been widely appreciated as a means of income transfer to the able-bodied but unemployed vulnerable population. Women have been actively engaged in project design and have also participated as manual workers in several FFW schemes. Some 25 percent of all participants in FFW projects are women.
For the future, it is planned to focus FFW activities on irrigation and reforestation, involving 40,000 beneficiaries. As before, the projects will primarily be implemented by the local communities, but activities will also be undertaken in co-operation with NGOs and IFRC.
The successful implementation of FFW projects depends on the availability of cash resources (an estimated 100,000 dollars) to purchase essential non-food items, i.e. tools and construction materials required for the repair and reconstruction of irrigation canals and shelter, as well as reforestation activities. After project completion, the remaining non-food items (such as tools) will be distributed to beneficiaries or local communities. Other basic materials and supplies are expected to be contributed by counterparts and local communities. Technical assistance is provided locally. This approach has proven successful in many FFW activities in different areas.
Monitoring is conducted during physical distribution of commodities and at the household level to verify the end-use of WFP food, assess its impact on household food security and improve future targeting.
WFP monitors make regular visits to EDPs and distribution points. This allows for immediate corrective interventions, in consultation with the social services, refugee representatives and HAC. The monitors verify distributions at the state stores to ascertain that targeted beneficiaries have received their rations according to distribution lists. UNHCR also participates in the monitoring of food distribution to refugees and IDPs. Furthermore, monitors ensure that any stock balances at state shops are noted and re-allocated to other sites.
Around three percent of beneficiaries are interviewed at the household level to verify the precision (and adequacy) of targeting and gain feedback on the adequacy of food management. Comprehensive data is collected, including: family size, gender composition, number of children and elderly in the family, employment, accuracy of received ration, utilisation of ration, monthly food consumption, household income and access to assistance from other sources. Recent monitoring results have revealed the following:
° no one was planning to sell their ration;
° only three percent of targeted beneficiaries had permanent employment; and,
° the average monthly household income was 10 dollars.
Nutritional Considerations and Food Basket
The present food insecurity in Armenia does not allow sufficient access to a balanced diet. In particular, pensioners remain at high risk for nutritional deficiencies with 64 percent not being able to afford two meals per day. According to the surveys conducted by the Ministry of Health, 3.2 percent of all children have low weight-for-age, and seven percent low height-for-age due to chronic malnutrition and lack of vitamins.
As WFP's target group of beneficiaries has access to some food, the ration is supplementary and is provided in bulk rather than as family food parcels. The WFP ration has been determined taking into consideration the food consumption habits of the local population and the availability of basic commodities. Pulses have been eliminated from the food basket in view of persisting energy shortages. Beneficiaries have indicated that cooking pulses is too energy-consuming, both for electricity and firewood.
The daily per capita ration has been determined at 200 g wheat flour, 25 g edible oil, and 15 g sugar. The energy value of this daily ration is approximately 980 KCal, containing about 25 g of protein and 28 g fat which meets the requirements for supplemen-tary feeding.
Taking into account stocks and carry over pledges of over 3,679 tons, the total balance required to pursue the operation, until 30 June 1998, amounts to 16,483 tons, or 7.7 million dollars. This covers all costs related to food procurement, Internal Transport, Storage and Handling (ITSH) and direct and indirect support costs.
Although Azerbaijan is no longer struggling with an acute emergency and fighting has stopped with the 1994 ceasefire, the country finds it difficult to come to terms with the unresolved conflict over Nagorno-Karabakh (which is an enclave, predominantly populated by ethnic Armenians). Twenty percent of Azeri territory has been occupied, and more than 800,000 ethnic Azeri have been displaced from Armenia and the enclave to safer areas within Azerbaijan. The continuing dispute over Nagorno-Karabakh, occasional shooting along the separation line and the spread of land mines in and around the enclave have discouraged the displaced population from returning home. So far, only 58,000 Internally Displaced Persons (IDPs) spontaneously resettled in 1994 in the liberated areas of Fizuli and Agdam. A few more thousand returned to the formerly occupied districts of Kazakh, Akstafa and Tovuz.
While the Organisation for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE) continues to mediate between the conflicting parties, prospects for peace have experienced yet another setback with the political leader of Nagorno-Karabakh having been appointed Prime Minister of Armenia and following the recent arms deal between Moscow and Yerevan.
Azerbaijan's economy has been severely drained by the fighting, the diplomatic disputes over Nagorno-Karabakh and the disruption of intra-Soviet trade links in the early 1990s. Although the economic downturn seems to have passed its nadir, the annual GDP per capita is still as low as 600 dollars, making Azerbaijan eligible for International Development Association (IDA) credits. Privatization of land and state-owned industry is moving slowly, and unemployment is on the increase. Azerbaijan's prospects for economic development depend heavily upon the opening of viable export routes for Caspian Sea oil through Georgia and Chechnya. While the latter route has been closed ever since the outbreak of the Chechnya crisis in December 1994, the Georgia pipeline has yet to be constructed. Oil is not expected to flow westbound before early 1998.
Under the Soviet regime, Azerbaijan was able to assist its vulnerable population through a basic social safety net. Since the break-up of the Soviet centralized economy, budgetary constraints have reduced social welfare provisions to a mere 5,500 Manat (equivalent to 1.3 dollars), compared to a minimum monthly food basket of 36 dollars per person. Living conditions of IDPs are extremely harsh. An average IDP family of four persons receives 22,000 Manat (5.4 dollars) from the Government, which barely covers 15 percent of the minimum monthly food requirement. Indicators, emanating from several poverty and vulnerability assessment studies, reveal that a large sector of the population (an estimated 60 percent according to World Bank findings) are affected by poverty and that some 20 percent could be considered extremely poor.
Domestic cereal production is still a long way from covering the consumption needs of some 7.4 million Azeris. Output is limited due to a substantial loss of agricultural land in and around Nagorno-Karabakh, shortages in yield-enhancing inputs, inadequate processing and distribution facilities and delays in the implementation of land reform. The 1996/97 grain harvest is expected to be slightly higher than the 1.02 million tons produced in 1996, on account of an increase by 60.000 hectares in the area sown to grain and progress made in the liberalization of bread prices and the privatization of wheat/bread distribution chains. Nonetheless, the expected output for 1996/97 will remain significantly below the 1.7 million annual cereal requirement, for the reasons mentioned above. It is expected that some 500,000 tons of cereals (mostly wheat) might have to be imported during 1997/98. While the amount of bilateral and multilateral wheat donations has decreased drastically over the last two years, some progress has been made in importing cereals from neighbouring countries on a commercial basis. Moreover, the European Union is assisting the Government in establishing a strategic reserve consisting of a three-month stock of wheat.
Disregarding the structural cereal deficit, there is a variety of food available on local markets. Yet, prices of basic foodstuffs are prohibitive, relative to average incomes. The problem of food insecurity is, thus, twofold: it is based on the structural cereal deficit and low purchasing power or limited access to alternative affordable foodstuffs.
While the Government provides basic assistance to refugees from Armenia who came to Azerbaijan at the early stage of the emergency, this is not the case for 611,000 IDPs from the occupied territories. Assistance to local vulnerable groups, previously covered by a Soviet social safety scheme (e.g. invalids and orphans), is at best intermittent. It is, thus, IDPs and local vulnerable population groups who have become the core beneficiaries of food aid. The Azeri government has been very appreciative of WFP efforts in this regard and in coordinating the overall provision of relief food aid to Azerbaijan.
WFP is actively cooperating with government representatives, such as the Deputy Prime-Minister for Humanitarian Assistance and the Head of the Commission for International Humanitarian and Technical Assistance, to identify — and respond to — uncovered food aid needs. Frequent consultations are also being held with representatives of local authorities on issues such as targeting and implementation procedures.
Objectives of WFP Assistance
WFP has been providing relief food aid to Azerbaijan since late 1993 in order to maintain the nutritional status of the displaced population. Initially, WFP assistance was only targeted at the immediate — and unassisted — victims of the conflict, i.e. the IDPs. Subsequently, assistance was also extended to a few vulnerable local population groups, such as orphans and disabled persons. In total, some 37,000 tons of mixed food commodities (valued at 28.7 million dollars) have been distributed during the last three and a half years.
The prevailing consensus is that relief food aid will have to flow as long as the deadlock over Nagorno-Karabakh's political status inhibits a return of the displaced population, and as long as Azerbaijan's economic development is hampered by delays in the exploitation of Caspian Sea oil. Once large scale oil exports resume, the government would eventually be in a position to finance a minimum social safety net and cover its structural cereal deficit through sufficient commercial imports. WFP envisages a phase-out, tentatively, by the spring of 1999.
Several assessment studies, undertaken by the World Bank (on poverty), ECHO and IFRC (on vulnerability), as well as USAID/WHO (on nutritional status), have concluded that virtually all IDPs in public buildings, camps and dugouts, single elderly pensioners and social institution inmates are affected by severe food insecurity. As far as IDPs are concerned, it should also be taken into account that, having been displaced more than three years ago, they have very few, if any, assets left to use as disposable income. Relief agencies in Azerbaijan have split up the assistance portfolio, both geographically, as well as in terms of beneficiary category, with WFP focusing mainly on IDPs in the North-West, Centre and South of the country.
According to government statistics, there are in total 609,432 IDPs in Azerbaijan, one third of whom are living in the districts of Baku and Sumgait. These people have a comparative advantage over IDPs in rural areas and 25 camps, where gas and electricity is only randomly provided and employment opportunities are extremely limited. As a result, food assistance has been mainly targeted to IDPs outside the major urban areas. Among the displaced are entire families, since hardly any Azeri has remained in the occupied territories after the outbreak of hostilities in 1988. Nonetheless, the percentage of female IDPs (and beneficiaries) is slightly higher than for males.
WFP is currently assisting some 116,000 IDPs (52 percent of whom girls and women), and 4,000 vulnerable persons (55 percent female), who have been accommodated in public buildings and 12 camps outside Baku and Sumgait. Of the IDPs, 16,000 are assisted through WFP's direct implementation programme, while 2,725 children and 300 IDP teachers (100 percent women) in psychosocial rehabilitation centres are assisted under a joint WFP/UNICEF food-for-work programme. The remaining beneficiaries receive WFP food rations through WFP's implementing partner, World Vision International (WVI).
Beneficiary lists have been drawn-up on the basis of registration lists provided by local authorities. This information is continuously screened by WFP food monitors and cross-checked with beneficiary lists of other aid agencies in order to avoid duplication. Moreover, the information is exchanged and evaluated during food aid coordination meetings, which are convened and chaired by the WFP Country Director on a regular basis.
At the request of the President of Azerbaijan, both the World Bank and UNDP have taken the lead on a long-term reconstruction and rehabilitation programme in the three front-line districts of Fizuli, Terter and Agdam. The objective of this programme is to allow some 60,000 IDPs to return and become gradually self-sufficient. Already in late 1996, WFP deleted some 10,000 IDPs from its beneficiary group, since they had decided to return to their native front-line districts of Kazakh/Agstafa and Touvuz, where assistance is currently provided by ICRC.
Under the third expansion (or phase) of WFP's Emergency Operation (EMOP), WFP's planning target has been scaled down to some 155,000 beneficiaries, reflecting a 25 percent reduction compared to the second EMOP expansion. In addition to the 120,000 beneficiaries listed overleaf, it comprises also a contingency figure of 30,000 returnees, in the event of repatriation to the formerly occupied areas where they will also benefit from the UNDP/World Bank reconstruction programme, plus an additional 5,000 destitute children targeted under an extension of the current WFP/UNICEF joint project.
Mode of Implementation
WFP/Baku has developed a field implementation model which is also followed by its implementing partner, WVI. Food distribution rounds are bi-monthly, whereby the commodities remain at WFP Extended Delivery Points (EDP) in Mingechevir, Ganya, Massale and Baku until the day of distribution. Distribution teams consist of food monitors, "registrars" (local staff registering all beneficiaries) and distributors (local staff handing out food rations from the trucks), identified jointly with the local authorities. Women head about two thirds of these teams. In order to speed up the food distribution process, rations are handed out straight from the truck, using special containers which clearly indicate monthly rations of the various food commodities. Truckloads are such as to ensure that all food is completely distributed within a day, which avoids storage at distribution points.
All beneficiaries are registered on so-called Commodity/Beneficiary Control Cards, which also show the amount and date of rations received. Once a Control Card is issued to a Head of Household (specific effort is made to register women as Head of Household), her/his passport is stamped. WFP continuously cross-checks beneficiary lists, computerised since early 1997, with those of other aid agencies, in order to avert double-targeting. Monitoring is carried out by the WFP Country Director and his Deputy, WFP food monitors and those hired by WFP implementing partners, covering the various levels of the field implementation, including storage sites, distribution points, beneficiary households and local markets. WFP monitoring has aimed at ensuring that food is effectively received and properly used by entitled beneficiaries, and not diverted.
Until mid-1996, WFP distributed exclusively through NGO implementing partners. With the departure of several of these NGOs, WFP took over food distribution in ten southern districts and six settlements, set up by ECHO. To this end, WFP opened a sub-office in Massale (southern Azerbaijan) and has ever since been distributing food directly, i.e. through local staff. The switch to direct implementation has allowed WFP to tighten its control over the final phase of the programme and increase women's participation in the set up and management of the relief feeding programme. WFP has increased the number of female staff, in the Baku office, from two in 1996 to five (out of 13) in 1997, including a female food monitor and data manager. WFP has recruited yet another female food monitor in Massale. Given the cultural and religious proscription affecting women in Azerbaijan, it has not been an easy undertaking to identify and train capable female candidates. Recent recruitments are, therefore, only the beginning of women's closer involvement in the design and implementation of the programme.
In view of the successful co-operation with WVI in the 17 central and north-western districts, WFP extended the implementation partnership agreement for another twelve months. Following the distribution model, applied by WFP in the South, WVI agreed to a substantial reduction in the number of trucks and distribution teams, which led to a significant cut in operational costs without affecting the performance.
Initially, WFP operations were exclusively focused on relief feeding. A year ago, and in pursuit of the objective to move from pure relief towards rehabilitation, WFP and UNICEF set up a psycho-social rehabilitation programme, according to which WFP food has been used as an in-kind salary for IDP women engaged in the training of destitute children. Joint activities started in the form of a pilot project in two camps and were, henceforth, extended to a total of nine camps, now assisting 2,725 children and 300 teachers.
WFP has assumed the overall food aid coordination role, which involves:
¨chairing monthly Food Aid Coordination meetings, attended by all food sector agencies;
¨participating in a Steering Committee, composed of representatives of funding agencies, such as ECHO, Save the Children, IFRC and WFP, to settle any disagreements among the various food aid operators;
¨promoting the principle of "regionalizing" food aid activities, according to which each food aid agency is assigned to a certain area of intervention, in order to avoid duplication and overlapping in the overall provision of food aid;
¨standardizing the food basket;and,
¨compiling and distributing a monthly statistics bulletin with a summary of food distributions per agency, beneficiary coverage and an updated basket for food and non-food items.
Nutritional Considerations and Food Basket
Taking into account that beneficiaries do have access to some food and in order to minimize the risk of food aid dependency, WFP provisions have been limited to supplementary rations, covering approximately 50 percent of an adult's daily KCal requirement. Most beneficiaries have received a balanced food basket in the form of dry, take-home rations. On occasion, institutional feeding has been undertaken to assist hospital patients and children in social welfare institutions.
The ration scale was amended in 1996, following feedback from WFP beneficiaries:
In late 1995, WFP mobilized a sizeable tonnage of dried green/yellow peas to cover a pulses ration of 50 gr per day. Unfortunately, the Azeri population was not familiar with this kind of protein food, and pea rations were only partially used in bread-baking (after grinding), soups and as a kind of substitute to mashed potatoes. Beneficiaries openly admitted that the remaining part of the ration was sold or exchanged on local markets. At various times, requests were voiced to provide other protein food or to give less peas and increase other food rations, instead. In view of the fact that beans are not very popular either and cheese is more than triple the price of peas, WFP decreased the ration of pulses to be compensated by an increase in the ration of wheat flour and sugar. The increase in cereals was also justified by the fact that bread prices had gradually risen, following a proportional reduction in bread subsidies.
At the same time, WFP food monitors developed and promoted recipes for the adequate use of pulses. The distribution of these recipes, with additional information on the health benefits of pulses, was appreciated by beneficiaries, as a result of which less pulses were found for sale on local markets.
If available through in-kind contributions, the WFP protein-food ration would provide 30 g canned cheese, instead of pulses, for 6,000 vulnerable children.
Taking into account stocks and carry over pledges of 8,074 tons the total balance required to pursue the operation until 30 June 1998 amounts to 5,221 tons, or 2.4 million dollars, covering all costs related to food procurement and transport, internal transport and management.
Since 1991 Georgia, as a newly-independent country, fell prey to civil war and ethnic strife: first in South Ossetia and then — even more violently — in Abkhazia. Fighting stopped in 1994 and the acute emergency phase is now over. However, in the absence of a political solution to secessionist claims, regional conflicts have reached a "no peace - no war" impasse. An estimated 290,000 persons, comprising 280,000 ethnic Georgians from Abkhazia and 10,000 from South Ossetia, have remained internally displaced.
No progress has been made during the last twelve months towards repatriating Internally Displaced Persons (IDPs) to Abkhazia. Returnee figures are limited to some 30,000 - 40,000 IDPs who have returned to the Gali region, controlled by the Commonwealth of Independent states (CIS) peace-keeping force and United Nations Observer Mission in Georgia (UNOMIG). The threat of land mines has recently increased, and casualties resulting from mine explosions are frequently reported.
The situation is less tense in South Ossetia, where some progress was made in May 1996 with the signature of a Memorandum of Understanding on measures to ensure security and strengthen mutual trust between Georgia and South Ossetia. This Memorandum was followed-up in March 1997 by an Organisation for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE)-sponsored agreement between Georgia, the CIS and South Ossetia on procedures for the return of refugees and IDPs to South Ossetia.
Georgians once enjoyed among the highest standards of living within the Soviet Union, until the economy was severely hit by civil strife, the loss of traditional trading partners and markets in Eastern Europe and severed access to agricultural areas in Abkhazia and South Ossetia. Economic activity in many sectors, including agriculture, came almost to a standstill in 1994/95 and Georgia was classified by the World Bank (WB) as a Low-Income Economy. In 1996, Georgia's GDP was as low as 600 dollars (WB data). The crisis has hit the population as a whole, and particularly IDPs who lost their sources of livelihood in Abkhazia and South Ossetia and have since been sheltered in public buildings or with host families throughout the country. Georgia's urban population is also facing severe hardship, as a result of rampant unemployment, high inflation and arrears in the payment of state salaries and allowances.
Domestic grain production is insufficient to cover food requirements of an estimated 4.5 million residents (excluding Abkhazia), and the Food and Agriculture Organisation of the United Nations (FAO) has classified Georgia as a Low-Income Food Deficit country. Traditionally a cereal net-importer, Georgia's grain supplies reached critically low levels, when access to Abkhazia was lost. The situation has improved as of late. Progress in land reform and improved availability of agricultural credit for inputs have already increased last year's cereal harvest to 635,000 tons. The areas sown to winter grains for harvest in 1997 have also expanded by 50,000 hectares. This upward trend in agricultural production could reduce the 1996/97 cereal import requirement to 300,000 tons, which are expected to be covered through commercial imports and food aid allocations. Commercial imports have expanded rapidly, following the privatization of the wheat/bread production and distribution systems. As a result, bilateral wheat aid shipments, which still amounted to 198,000 tons in 1996 to cover subsidized bread rations, are no longer expected in 1997.
Thanks to improvements in the agricultural sector, a fairly large variety of food is being sold on local markets. Nonetheless, the food security of Georgia's vulnerable population groups has not yet significantly improved. Since the introduction of the new currency (the Lari) in the fall of 1995, the purchasing power of people living on state allowances and minimum salaries of nine Lari (approximately seven dollars) has been severely eroded. A minimum monthly consumer basket is now estimated at 109 Lari (85.5 dollars) per capita and bread prices have risen to Lari 0.7 per kg in line with the gradual removal of bread subsidies. Given this situation, bread has become the staple — if not only — food-intake of vulnerable families.
The economic crisis in Georgia has affected not only the food sector, but also essential social and health services. IDPs and other vulnerable persons have only limited access to health care and education. The demographic impact thereof is a decrease in childbirth by 155 percent since 1991 (UNICEF).
The Georgian government continued the Soviet social welfare scheme which in the past, provided minimum assistance to vulnerable population groups. Nowadays, budgetary resources are inadequate to meet commitments and cover needs as they were reduced to Lari 16 million (i.e. 12.4 million dollars) in the 1997 budget. The problem is further compounded by payments of state allowances and minimum salaries paid irregularly in arrears.
The government's policy towards IDPs is based on the assumption that they will return to Abkhazia one day. Thus, no major effort is undertaken to assist these people in settling down elsewhere in Georgia and integrating them into local communities. Since negotiations over Abkhazia's political status are at an impasse — with the government in Tbilisi insisting on maintaining Georgia's territorial integrity and the Abkhazians striving for full independence —, the prospects for a return of ethnic Georgian IDPs to Abkhazia look bleak. Land mines and occasional flare-up of hostilities are further obstacles in this process.
WFP has been closely cooperating with the government, particularly the Coordination Bureau for International Humanitarian Assistance (CBIHA), in targeting and coordination of food aid. WFP, in collaboration with the government and other major food aid operators, has promoted the concept of "regionalisation", according to which all food aid agencies/projects are allocated to a certain area of intervention. "Regionalization" aims at avoiding that agencies operate randomly, thereby running the risk of duplicating each others efforts in some regions, while leaving other regions uncovered.
Objectives of WFP Assistance
WFP has been providing relief food aid to Georgia since autumn 1993 in order to maintain the nutritional status of the displaced and other vulnerable population groups. Although the economic crisis seems to have bottomed out and economic activity has resumed, it is far from encompassing all sectors. There are still large pockets within the population which do not benefit from the incipient economic recovery: particularly those people who are not able to generate personal income (e.g. the elderly, disabled and unemployed persons, IDPs and social institution inmates) or live in areas which are geographically remote (e.g. the high mountainous areas in the North).
Food aid will need to continue for an expected further two years, by which time the displaced population will hopefully have resettled safely in Abkhazia, local food production will have resumed and the Georgian economy will have picked up sufficiently to guarantee a minimum subsistence level to its vulnerable population.
WFP is preparing to phaseout through a two-pronged approach:
¨WFP will continue to support the most vulnerable population through the provision of supplementary food assistance. Targeting is reassessed on a continuous basis to ensure that only the most vulnerable cases among the IDP and local population are assisted, and that food aid dependency is kept to a minimum.
¨WFP, at the same time, will pursue activities on the relief towards partial rehabilitation continuum through Food-For-Work (FFW). These activities will be geared towards improving the living conditions of the local population by restoring infrastructure capacity and asset creation. This gradual shift from pure bulk food distributions towards FFW activities will result in an overall reduction in beneficiary figures. FFW projects will focus on rural areas in the low lands, involving women and other small farmers in rehabilitating tea plantations and silk production (these activities have traditionally been carried out by women in Georgia).
In early 1996, WFP's target group of beneficiaries was based on categories of socially vulnerable persons established during the Soviet Union. Since not every vulnerable person is also food insecure, several assessment studies were conducted in 1996 to identify more precise targeting criteria. WFP's target group of beneficiaries was subsequently adjusted to findings of a Department of Humanitarian Affairs (DHA)-led vulnerability assessment study and a household vulnerability survey, undertaken by one of WFP's former implementing partners, the local NGO 'A Call To Serve' (ACTS)/Georgia. Together with the Kutaisi Doctors Association, ACTS/Georgia designed a system of social stratification of households, whereby the food security of each household is determined by family size, assets and income. The most vulnerable households were singled out and are now being assisted with WFP food. Both assessments aimed at narrowing down the earlier broad categories of generally vulnerable individuals to vulnerable and food-insecure households (including IDPs). As a result of this new selection process, WFP's target group was streamlined and reduced from 300,000 to currently 170,000, of whom 56 percent are women.
WFP assists those people whose food aid needs are not covered by any other relief agency. Exceptional overlap occurs only in the case of extremely vulnerable elderly people, who may receive WFP bulk food and may also be assisted through NGO soup kitchens. As WFP food distributions are limited to the western and eastern regions of Georgia, WFP does not assist the total IDP caseload, but only some 20 percent (i.e. 62,000 persons).
In the absence of further donor support, the programmes of several other food aid operators have come to an end, and vulnerable groups in some regions of Georgia have been left without international humanitarian assistance. This has happened in the region of Zugdidi, where 100,000 IDPs and other vulnerable persons are no longer assisted with food aid. With improved targeting, WFP will allocate some food aid resources to meet the needs of the most vulnerable households in those areas no longer assisted by other aid agencies.
Mode of Implementation
In autumn 1993, WFP established a Caucasus Regional Office in Tbilisi and sub-offices were eventually set up in Kutaisi and Batumi. With the successful completion of the Caucasus Logistics Advisory Unit (CLAU) work, the sub-office in Batumi was closed in May 1997. The Kutaisi sub-office will be maintained as it has become the focal point for WFP food distributions in western Georgia.
Since 1993, WFP has been providing 36,600 tons of mixed food commodities (valued at approximately 25 million dollars). In 1997 to date, WFP has assumed a 35 percent share in the overall provision of relief food aid in Georgia.
Food commodities are predominantly purchased in Europe and USA and then shipped to the Georgian ports of Poti and Batumi for onward delivery by rail to WFP Extended Delivery Points in Zugdidi and Tbilisi.
Until mid-1996, WFP arranged final implementation of the relief feeding project through IFRC and NGO implementing partners, such as ACTS/Georgia, Action International Contre la Faim (AICF), International Orthodox Christian Charity (IOCC) and Women Aid International (WAI). From September 1996 onwards, WFP took over this responsibility, and food distributions are now organised and implemented directly by WFP staff. The food is delivered from WFP warehouses to distribution points, situated within easy reach of the targeted population. IDPs, accommodated in collective centers, receive food rations directly in the centers.
The switch to direct implementation has allowed WFP to render the operation more cost-effective and keep a tighter control over the implementation process. Distribution cycles have become more regular, while the computerization of beneficiary lists has facilitated targeting. Under the direct distribution module, 5,864 tons of food aid have so far been distributed in bi-monthly distribution rounds to an average of 190,000 beneficiaries (56 percent of whom women).
Moreover, WFP has shifted some food resources to FFW projects. Eight small-scale pilot projects have already been initiated:
¨construction of protection walls against landslides in Savant;
¨rehabilitation of wood-parks in Kakheti and Krtsanisi (near Tbilisi);
¨support to members of an agricultural cooperative in Rustavi;
¨silk production in the low lands;
¨production of tea enriched by iodine in west and east Georgia; and,
¨rehabilitation of tea plantations in Khoni and Imereti.
Pending the outcome of these projects, it is planned to expand and replicate them in other areas, involving up to 10,000 vulnerable households (i.e. 50,000 persons) by 1998.
WFP/Georgia has paid special attention to attaining a gender balance in the composition of staff. With more than 50 percent of WFP national and local staff being women, WFP has ensured that women are actively involved in the implementation of the programme and that women beneficiaries are effectively targeted.
WFP food distributions are co-ordinated with those undertaken by the NGO community in order to forestall overlapping and duplication in the overall provision of food aid. WFP has assumed a lead role in the Co-ordination Group, which was set up to serve the various food aid agencies as a forum for information exchange on food distributions and pipelines. Moreover, WFP has been appointed focal point for compiling respective data which is then shared with all interested parties.
Food distributions, as well as FFW activities, are closely monitored by 14 national and local staff, covering up to five percent of total beneficiaries during distribution rounds. The monitoring procedure is divided up in three phases as follows.
¨Streamlined targeting is an ongoing process. WFP monitors consult with local authorities on the validity of existing beneficiary lists. Together, they reassess the needs of beneficiaries according to fixed selection criteria;
¨WFP monitors are present during distributions. They keep an oversight on distribution procedures and check whether food is properly stored and stocks are in line with distribution lists;
¨WFP monitors visit beneficiary households to check on the receipt and proper use of WFP rations. They check on available food stocks and reassess the food security of the household. Vulnerability criteria are based on several indicators: household food stocks, income, property (including land), live stock, ability to produce food, number of children, elderly persons and chronically ill people in the family etc. Based on the above indicators WFP Monitors, together with the local authorities, identify the poverty level of a family.
¨Regular monitoring at local markets has shown that very little is found for sale. WFP food distributions are unlikely to disrupt local markets, since rations are only supplementary and strictly targeted.
Nutritional Considerations and Food Basket
WFP's food basket for relief feeding has been determined, following recommendations by the WFP Food Assessment Mission in February 1996. Slight modifications had then been made to the ration, taking into account local food availability and habits, as well as prior acceptability experiences. Since beneficiaries have access to some food, WFP's relief aid programme will continue to provide supplementary rations, covering approximately 50 percent of the minimum daily KCal requirement.
Modifications to the food basket were adopted in September 1996. Pulses were taken out of the food basket, since peas provided earlier did not match Georgia's traditional food habits. Beans, which are widely eaten, are at least twice as expensive as peas, if purchased in Western Europe. Since beans are readily available on local markets for relatively low prices, it was decided to drop this commodity and to compensate with an increased allocation of cereals. The sugar ration has also been slightly increased to allow for fruit preservation during summer months.
As for the FFW projects, the daily ration for a beneficiary has taken into account that (s)he will have to sustain a family of an average size of five persons:
The diet of vulnerable persons consists mainly of bread, maize dishes, beans and tea. Most households have no access to fats, animal proteins and sugar. WFP's supplementary food basket is meant to free up resources, normally spent on cereals, for other foodstuffs (such as beans and vegetables), and supplement the daily diet with edible oil and sugar. All three food commodities are produced locally but only in very small quantities which has impacted on the price.
Taking into account stocks and carry over pledges of 5,700 tons, the total balance required to pursue the operation until 30 June 1998 amounts to 12,215 tons, or 5.3 million dollars, covering all costs related to food procurement and transport, ITSH and management.
|AICF||Action International Contre la Faim|
|ACTS||A Call To Serve|
|CBIHA||Coordination Bureau for International Humanitarian Assistance|
|CIS||Commonwealth of Independent States|
|CLAU||Caucasus Logistics Advisory Unit (WFP)|
|DHA||United Nations Department of Humanitarian Affairs|
|EMOP||Emergency Operations Project (WFP)|
|ECHO||European Community Humanitarian Office|
|EDP||Extended Delivery Point|
|FAR||Fund for Armenian Relief|
|FAO||Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations|
|FFW||Food For Work|
|HAC||Armenian Humanitarian Commitee|
|ICRC||International Commitee of the Red Cross|
|IDA||International Development Association|
|IDP||Internally Displaced Person|
|IFRC||International Federation of the Red Cross and the Red Crescent Societies|
|IMF||International Monetary Fund|
|IOM||International Organization for Migration|
|IOCC||International Orthodox Christian Charity|
|ITSH||Internal Transport, Storage and Handling|
|NGO||Non Governmental Organisation|
|OMC||Bureau for the Mediterranean, Middle East, Eastern Europe and the CIS (WFP)|
|OSCE||Organisation for Security and Cooperation in Europe|
|PAROS||'Beacon' Vulnerability assessment system|
|TRACECA||Transport Corridor Europe Caucasus Asia|
|UNDP||United Nations Development Programme|
|UNHCR||United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees|
|UNICEF||United Nations Children's Fund|
|UNOMIG||United Nations Observer Mission in Georgia|
|USAID||United States Agency for International Development|
|WAI||Women Aid Interantional|
|WFP||World Food Programme|
|WHO||World Health Organisation|
|WVI||World Vision International|
More detailed information on specific situations referred to in this Appeal is available from WFP. Enquiries should be directed to Robert Hauser, Head, Eastern Europe and CIS Unit, OMC, WFP Headquarters, Via Cristoforo Colombo 426, 00145, Roma, Italy. Tel: +39 6 2868 2577. Fax: +39 6 2868 2836. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Via Cristoforo Colombo 426, 00145 Rome, Italy
Telephone: (0039) 6 5228 2395
Fax: (0039) 6 5228 2836
WFP in Azerbaijan
Majed Fassih, Country Director
3, the United Nations 50th Anniversary St. Baku, Azerbaijan
Tel: 994 12 938096 (CD) or 923826
Fax: 994 12 938206
Telex: 142 469 UN AZE SU
E-Mail Address: email@example.com
WFP Caucasus Regional Office, Georgia
John Murray, Regional Coordinator for Caucasus and Country Director, Georgia
35 A, Amagleba St.Tbilisi, 370007, Republic of Georgia
Tel: (+995 32) 959951/934259/934492/237180
Fax: (+995 32) 997171
E-Mail Address: CRO@unwfp.ge
Sat. Fax: 995 32 001080/1081 ext. 116
WFP in Armenia
Douglas Broderick, Country Director
Tel: (3742) 532358 or 585112 or 564904
Fax: (3742) 151452 or 532 358
0 Sat fax: (3742) 151725
E - Mail: douglas@WFP.arminco.com
Sat Fax: 995 32 001080/81 ext 126