Humanitarian situation in Angola monthly analysis: Oct 2001
During the first ten months of the year, as many as 436,500 persons may have been forced from their homes by war-related violence, bringing the total number of persons displaced since the resumption of hostilities in January 1998 to approximately 3.5 million. Of this number, 1.3 million internally displaced persons (IDPs) have been confirmed by humanitarian partners and are receiving assistance. Provinces with the largest concentrations of displaced persons include Huíla, Huambo, Bié and Malanje.
Although the level of displacement decreased compared to the previous month, when more than 63,000 people were displaced, primarily from the north of Bengo Province and within Bié Province, displacement rates remained high. During October 2001, humanitarian partners reported the displacement of more than 43,000 people in 14 provinces. Significant population movements continued to occur in Bié Province, bringing the total number of IDPs in Kuito and Camacupa to approximately 109,000 and 26,000, respectively. Large influxes of IDPs were also registered in Bengo, Uíge, Huíla, Moxico and Kuanza Sul Provinces.
Humanitarian partners have provided the following preliminary figures regarding displacements during October:1
Number of New IDPs
During October, resettlement activities continued in at least 12 provinces. In a number of locations, construction of houses and rehabilitation of infrastructure slowed due to the onset of seasonal rains. In three locations, resettlement activities were suspended due to insecurity and mine incidents near resettlement sites. Although the majority of resettlement activities were conducted in compliance with the Norms on the Resettlement of Displaced Populations, violations continued to occur, most notably at the Cuvelai resettlement site in Huíla Province.
- In Benguela Province, humanitarian partners continued to prepare for the resettlement of at least 680 IDP families at Cassiva and Lemos in the periphery of Cubal. In addition, the Ministry of Social Affairs and Reintegration (MINARS), the Institute for Social Reinsertion of Ex-Militaries (IRSEM) and Deutsche Gesellschaft fur Technische Zusammenarbeit (GTZ) plan to resettle 400 displaced families in Alto Cubal.
- In Bié Province, provincial authorities and humanitarian partners discussed the possibility of developing small-scale resettlement activities in Cunhinga, Cuquema and Chissingui to relieve overcrowding at IDP camps in Kuito. The proposed resettlement area in Cunhinga requires mine surveying and clearance before resettlement activities can begin.
- In Cunene Province, local authorities plan to relocate approximately 750 IDPs from Omatemba camp to a resettlement site at Chiede in Namacunde Municipality, where rehabilitation of social infrastructures and construction of houses are underway.
- In Huambo Province, local authorities and humanitarian organisations continued to implement resettlement programmes in Chipipa and Longonjo. A number of families moved into recently constructed houses in both locations and partners continued construction of basic infrastructures at the sites. In addition, OIKOS began a food security and micro-credit programme for the population undergoing resettlement. In Caála, humanitarian partners continued to develop basic services at the Cantão Pahula resettlement site to accommodate IDPs who have recently been resettled from the CFB, Lar Girassol and CRC transit centres. Humanitarian partners report that the majority of resettlement sites in the province lack adequate water supply and that substantial numbers of new IDPs have not been registered or assisted.
- In Huíla Province, approximately 2,400 IDPs were resettled during October. The majority were recent arrivals from Chipindo and Chicomba who were resettled near Matala and Quipungo. In Matala Municipality, humanitarian partners continued to prepare conditions at the Candjanguity site, where IDPs from the Chilepe camp and new arrivals will shortly be resettled. During October, families who had arrived at Candjanuity in previous months received one hectare of land per family. In Caconda, resettlement activities continued at Fazenda Alves and Lunguri. Approximately 1,070 houses were completed at Fazenda Alves through a self-construction programme supported by the Provincial Government. Resettlement activities also continued in Caluquembe, Cacula and Matala. Humanitarian partners remain concerned about non-compliance with the Norms at the Cuvelai resettlement site in Chicomba Municipality, where minimum conditions are still not in place. Reports indicate that as many as 8,000 IDPs at the site do not have access to basic services. In addition, the presence of mines along access routes and in fields remains a serious threat to the population.
- In Kuando Kubango Province, 200 recent arrivals were resettled from the Menongue reception centre to the Savipanda resettlement site and 63 spontaneously resettled in areas within the security perimeter. Persons who spontaneously resettled have not received assistance. At the end of the month, more than 1,000 IDPs remained at the reception centre. Resettlement of these IDPs was delayed due to lack of fuel and transport. In addition, some IDPs were reluctant to resettle at the designated areas of Savipanda and Nzonde. The Resettlement Sub-group has identified an additional resettlement site near Chimpompo for IDPs who do not wish to relocate to the Nzonde or Savipanda resettlement areas. In Kuito Kuanavale, a plan to resettle displaced populations at Ndima, 11 km west of the town, was rejected by traditional authorities representing the displaced population. The IDPs prefer to resettle near the municipal centre where basic services are more readily available. Local authorities have identified a new site at Cambambi, located to the north of the town, where 977 IDPs were resettled during October.
- In Kuanza Norte Province, resettlement activities in Dondo remained limited due to a lack of commitment on the part of local authorities. Humanitarian partners expressed concern over insufficient access to health and water and sanitation facilities at the Cassua and Mucoso resettlement sites. In N'dalatando, the lack of roofing material hampered resettlement activities at Quibuangoma where Caritas and the World Food Programme (WFP) are supporting the construction of 515 houses.
- In Kuanza Sul Province, local authorities continued to implement a resettlement programme in Cuacra, near Sumbe, for 120 IDPs from N'jata camp. In addition, local authorities and humanitarian partners upgraded conditions at Pomba Nova camp, eight km east of Sumbe. The camp will be converted into a resettlement site.
- In Lunda Sul Province, MINARS and humanitarian partners conducted a verification of IDPs living at resettlement sites in Saurimo. Results indicate that the number of persons living at the sites is less than officially registered. Lutheran World Federation (LWF) began construction of 750 houses at Muandonje, 25 km east of Saurimo, to accommodate IDPs from Muconda Municipality. Humanitarian organisations reported that resettlement activities slowed during the month as IDPs dedicated their time to agricultural activities.
- In Malanje Province, resettlement activities in Quissol and Camatete remained suspended as a result of a mine incident that injured a humanitarian worker on 25 September. Resettlement activities will resume pending the results of a comprehensive mine survey. Activities were also suspended in Cangandala as a result of insecurity and harassment of NGOs by military personnel on the road between Cangandala and Malanje. Resettlement activities will resume following firm security guarantees from the army. In Lau, where humanitarian partners continue to prepare for the relocation of 400 families from Kiwaba-N'zogi, resettlement activities slowed during the last weeks of October due to the onset of seasonal rains and the planting season. Traditional authorities recommend that construction of remaining houses is postponed until the beginning of 2002.
- In Moxico Province, approximately 2,000 new arrivals were resettled at Cautepue, which is expected to reach full capacity during the next few months. Local authorities have identified a new resettlement site at Muachimbo, 13 km from Luena. Humanitarian partners reported that more than 1,000 families resettled in Sacassanje and Cautepue remain without access to shelter and non-food items.
- In Namibe Province, provincial authorities facilitated a visit of traditional leaders, flood victims and IDP representatives from Bibala and Camacuio at Munda and Curoca resettlement areas near Tombua to discuss resettlement plans with resident communities. Following the visit, 78 IDP families from Camacuio and 38 IDP families from Giraul de Baixo expressed an interest in resettling at Curoca. Additional IDPs from Bibala and living in caves next to the harbour and port in Namibe city do not wish to resettle in Curoca.
- In Zaire Province, following the 1 October attack on M'banza Magina village, a number of IDPs living at the nearby M'banza Magina camp requested to be relocated to N'zolani, despite overcrowded living conditions at the site. Humanitarian partners are working with local authorities to facilitate the relocation. Norwegian Refugee Council (NRC) continued to prepare basic infrastructure at Kiowa, near M'banza Congo, for the resettlement of IDPs from the overcrowded N'zolani camp. Following the attack, the IDP population at N'zolani refused to move to the new site due to its isolation. Humanitarian agencies are discussing the possibility of establishing a police post near the site with local authorities.
During October, some populations returned to points of origin, although persistent insecurity continued to hamper large-scale return movements.
- In Kuanza Sul Province, local authorities reported the return of 715 IDPs from Kanjala in Benguela Province to Ngungo in Sumbe Municipality.
- In Kuando Kubango Province, three persons returning from Namibia were registered in Menongue.
- In Moxico Province, 321 persons from the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) returned to Luena. In Luau, local authorities reported that approximately 400 returnees from the DRC are registered each month. The majority usually proceed to Luacano, Lumege Cameia, Leua and Luena. In Luena, LWF reported that 46 IDPs from ENAMA camp returned to points of origin in Lunda Sul Province in recent months.
- In Zaire Province, NRC reported that 577 returned to M'banza Congo from the DRC.
Approximately 13,500 IDPs continue to live in sub-standard conditions in 12 transit centres in the Provinces of Benguela, Huambo, Huíla, Luanda, Malanje and Uíge. Closure of these transit centres remains a top priority for the humanitarian community. Major efforts are currently underway to close four transit centres in Benguela and Lobito (Benguela Province), Longonjo (Huambo Province) and Caconda (Huíla Province) by the end of the year. Despite attempts to close transit centres and warehouses in Longonjo and Bongo (Huambo Province) and Caconda (Huíla Province) by the end of November, persistent insecurity and the constant influx of new arrivals may force the centres to remain open.
- In Benguela Province, more than 3,650 persons remained at the UNECA transit centre in Benguela and Campo Feira in Lobito awaiting resettlement near points of origin in Bié and Huambo Provinces. On 4 October, provincial authorities reported that IDPs from both transit centres would be transported to points of origin during November, when children have completed the academic year and received school certificates.
- In Huambo Province, humanitarian partners continued to prepare resettlement sites near Longonjo and Bongo to accommodate approximately 1,800 IDPs currently living in several transit centres and abandoned buildings. The new sites are scheduled to open in mid November. Due to the continuous arrival of displaced persons, however, the new resettlement sites may not have sufficient capacity to accommodate all new arrivals and the transit centres may remain open.
- In Huíla Province, local authorities opened a new camp in the periphery of Caconda to accommodate 650 IDPs who were living in sub-standard conditions in a warehouse in the centre of the municipal centre. Despite this initiative, persistent insecurity in the region forced 67 new families to seek refuge in the warehouse at the end of October.
- In Uíge Province, deteriorating security conditions around the provincial capital forced populations from surrounding villages to seek refuge in the city. Approximately 1,000 IDPs were registered at the Manauto warehouse following the attacks on 14 and 15 October. Local authorities and humanitarian organisations plan to relocate the population from the warehouse to areas within the periphery of the city.
Humanitarian partners gained access to Caconda, Huíla Province following a security assessment on 17 October. On the basis of recommendations made by the security assessment mission, the area was reopened for humanitarian assistance on 27 October. In a positive step forward, MINARS reported that the Angolan Armed Forces (FAA) began to deliver food assistance to 2,355 families in Umpulo, Chitembo, Mutumbo, Cachingues, Chinguar and Mumbue, which remain inaccessible to humanitarian partners. However, as a result of repeated incidents of harassment on the road between Cambando and Malanje, humanitarian operations were temporarily suspended in Cangandala. Operations in this area will resume pending security guarantees from the appropriate authorities.
The following logistical constraints continued to hamper humanitarian assistance activities:
- In Bié Province, the Kuito airstrip and the road between Kuito and Camacupa remained in extremely poor condition, hindering the delivery of humanitarian assistance.
- In Kuando Kubango Province, insecurity, poor road conditions and lack of transport continued to impede the delivery of humanitarian assistance to Kuito Kuanavale. The lack of transport also delayed the construction of a reception facility for new arrivals in the town.
- In Uíge Province, the poor condition of the airstrips in Uíge and Negage continued to hamper the delivery of humanitarian assistance.
Security conditions remained serious in many provinces. During October, insecurity was reported in the Provinces of Benguela, Bié, Huambo, Huíla, Kuando Kubango, Kuanza Norte, Kuanza Sul, Luanda, Lunda Sul, Malanje, Moxico, Namibe, Uíge and Zaire. Uíge city was attacked on 15 October, leading to a 24-hour suspension of humanitarian activities. Attacks continued to be carried out against civilian targets, private vehicles, relief convoys and commercial trucks. In a number of locations, civilians were killed and injured as a result of troop indiscipline. In addition, humanitarian partners were threatened and harassed by military personnel in Huambo and Malanje Province. Partners also expressed serious concern regarding three attacks carried out in close proximity to resettlement sites near Matula and Cacula in Huíla Province and M'banza Magina in Zaire Province.
During October, mine incidents were reported in the Provinces of Bié, Huambo, Kuando Kubango, Lunda Sul and Moxico killing 19 persons and injuring 25, including one humanitarian worker. Since January 2001, approximately 165 persons have died and 206 have been injured as a result of mine accidents.2
During October, approximately 30 humanitarian organisations continued to assist 320,000 vulnerable families with seeds, tools and fertilisers.3 According to the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), 80 percent of required agricultural inputs had been delivered by the end of the month. However, delays in deliveries of essential agricultural inputs, funding constraints and continuous arrivals of newly displaced persons continued to cause disruptions in the agricultural campaign. In many parts of the country, the late arrival of seasonal rains helped to compensate for delayed deliveries of essential agricultural inputs.
- In Benguela Province, the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) supported agricultural activities in Cubal and Ganda with maize seeds from multiplication programmes in Huambo. Humanitarian organisations reported that 50 percent of seeds and tools requirements had been distributed by the end of October.
- In Bié Province, WFP, Euronaid, Care and Concern prepared a plan under the coordination of FAO to provide seeds and tools to approximately 7,000 families in Camacupa. These families had not been included in the original plan for the agricultural campaign due to their late arrival. The seeds and tools will be distributed during November.
- In Huíla Province, reports indicate that the continuous arrivals of IDPs delayed seeds and tools distributions in Caconda, Caluquembe, Matala and Cacula. During October, FAO, WFP and Euronaid provided support to Caritas and ZOA to cover the needs of approximately 4,500 families in Cacula, Caluquembe and Caconda. In addition, FAO provided assistance to União de Igrejas Evangélicas em Angola (UIEA) to purchase seeds for an additional 3,000 families in the province.
- In Kuando Kubango Province, approximately 5,800 families are expected to receive agricultural assistance from humanitarian organisations.
- In Moxico Province, partners expressed concern regarding delays in deliveries of essential agricultural inputs. By the end of the month, seeds and tools for 7,500 families had not arrived yet in Luena due to difficulties with customs procedures in Luanda.
- In Malanje Province, five national NGOs remained without funding to provide agricultural assistance to approximately 10,000 families.
During October, WFP planned to assist 816,487 beneficiaries, representing a 2.8 percent increase compared to September figures. In addition, ICRC provided food assistance to approximately 28,000 persons in Huambo.
Between June and October, WFP, in coordination with representatives from the Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development (MINADER), MINARS, the Ministry of Health (MINSA), OCHA and NGOs, conducted the third vulnerability assessment in accessible areas in nine provinces. The conclusions and recommendations from the assessment will assist decision-makers at national and provincial levels to establish priorities for humanitarian interventions in the period leading up to the next harvest in May 2002. A report of the assessment findings is forthcoming.
Health and Nutrition
Morbidity and Mortality
During September, morbidity and mortality rates continued to be high, particularly in areas with high concentrations of newly displaced populations. Outbreaks of vaccine-preventable diseases, including measles and meningitis, continued to be reported in at least seven provinces. Reports indicate that children over five years of age continue to be affected by these diseases. Partners recommended that vaccination programmes are reinforced and expanded to include children up to 15 years of age. Cases of malaria and water-borne diseases are expected to increase in coming weeks due to the onset of seasonal rains.
- In Bié Province, measles outbreaks affected the Municipalities of Andulo, Kuito and N'harea. In response to the epidemic, which began in August, 16,938 IDP children and 9,857 resident children between nine months and five years were vaccinated in Kuito on 18, 19 and 22 October. Humanitarian partners recommend that the Expanded Programme of Immunisation (EPI) is expanded to include children between five and 15 years old because a large number of cases involved persons over five years of age. Médecins sans Frontières - Belgium (MSF-B) opened a day-care facility for young measles patients unable to receive care at the paediatric ward of the provincial hospital.
- In Cunene Province, meningitis cases continued to be reported in Odjiva and at the hospital in Chiulo, where an average of one new case was diagnosed each day. An immunisation campaign including 50,000 doses of anti-meningitis vaccine was conducted during September.
- In Huíla Province, 218 cases of measles and 26 related deaths were reported during October. Since June, a total of 650 measles cases and 106 related deaths have been reported. Provincial health authorities and partners took steps to increase epidemiological surveillance, reinforce routine vaccinations at health posts and conduct information campaigns about the disease and treatment. In Matala, MSF-Spain conducted a comprehensive vaccination campaign, reaching 45,000 children from six months to 15 years old. During November, partners plan to increase vaccination coverage in the most affected districts of Lubango, Caluquembe and Caconda with support from EPI in Luanda. During the last two weeks of October, seven meningitis cases and one related death were reported, bringing the total number of cases and reported deaths to 28 and eight, respectively, since the beginning of the year.
- In Kuando Kubango Province, a meningitis vaccination campaign conducted in Menongue during the last week of September had positive results. No new cases of the disease were reported in the municipality after 14 October. In Cuchi, however, local authorities reported 12 cases of meningitis with three deaths and eight cases of measles with four deaths. In addition, the number of malaria and diarrhoea cases increased in Menongue and Kuito Kuanavale.
- In Kuanza Norte, health authorities in Samba Caju Municipality reported 20 new cases of measles during the month. Due to the limited number of vaccination points and properly functioning cold chains in the province, measles and tetanus vaccinations have reached only 16 percent of the target population.
- In Malanje Province, 59 cases of measles and four related deaths were reported in Cangandala between 10 September and 28 October. The majority of cases involved displaced children who had not been immunised. In response to the situation, MSF - Holland conducted a vaccination campaign in the municipality, reaching 1,372 children under five years of age.
- In Namibe Province, a measles outbreak was reported in two barrios of Namibe city. Local health authorities increased vaccination accordingly.
Increasing levels of malnutrition were reported in a number of locations during October, particularly in areas where influxes of IDPs continued to arrive, often in poor condition. Increased food insecurity was also related to the onset of the "lean season", as harvest stocks became depleted and populations began planting for the next agricultural season. In other locations, malnutrition continued to be linked to contaminated water and related diseases.
- In Cunene Province, cases of severe malnutrition continued to be reported at the Chiulo hospital and at the Xangongo health centre. High levels of malnutrition are linked to poor water quality rather than food insecurity. Partners recommend that provincial authorities conduct a nutritional survey at Chiulo hospital as a matter of priority. Additional recommendations include the immediate implementation of emergency water and sanitation interventions.
- In Huambo Province, partners operating feeding centres report that malnutrition levels increased slightly during October due to the onset of the lean season. In Chipipa, partners recommend that community kitchens are reinforced to combat increasing food insecurity.
- In Huíla Province, an inter-agency mission reported high levels of malnutrition among newly arrived IDPs in Caconda. To address the situation, Caritas has been distributing emergency food rations and Acción Contra al Hambre (ACH) will begin a nutrition programme in November.
- In Malanje Province, slight increases in attendance at nutritional centres in Cangandala were registered during the month, primarily due to the admission of 60 new cases from Mussende Municipality in Kuanza Sul Province.
Coordination of Humanitarian Assistance
Standard Operating Procedures for Reception and Registration Centres
During October, under the leadership of MINARS and with support from OCHA, a technical working group finalised the Dispatch on Reception and Registration Centres. The Dispatch, which outlines standard operating procedures for reception and registration centres in provinces where newly displaced persons continue to arrive, is expected to be officially endorsed by the Minister of Social Affairs and Reintegration in the weeks to come.
Security and Humanitarian Needs Assessments
On 17 October, a joint mission comprised of representatives from Government institutions, UN Agencies and NGOs conducted a security and humanitarian needs assessment in Caconda, Huíla Province. As a result of the assessment, Caconda was classified as an accessible area and an emergency plan of action was developed to address critical humanitarian needs in the location. On 20 October, Government representatives conducted a security and humanitarian needs assessment in Wako Kungo, Kuanza Sul Province, where approximately 2,000 newly displaced persons were registered during the last two weeks of October. A plan of action was developed following the mission to address the critical needs of the new arrivals.
Since August, the Ministry of Justice (MINJUS), UNICEF and churches have worked together to launch a nation-wide birth registration campaign. By the end of October, Provincial Registrars' Offices had registered 70,830 children in 14 provinces. During the month, MINJUS continued to seek support from NGOs to reinforce a social mobilisation campaign and provide logistical support for registration activities. In Kuito and Matala, MINARS and local IDP and Refugee Sub-groups facilitated the identification of displaced children for birth registration. During 2002, humanitarian partners will support efforts to extend birth registration to approximately 2.5 million children.
During October, the Technical Unit for the Coordination of Humanitarian Assistance (UTCAH) Provincial Coordinators and Private Agencies Collaborating Together (PACTO) facilitators provided training in Sphere standards and humanitarian principles, focusing on national legislation, including the Norms and the corresponding regulamento, for national NGOs operating humanitarian programmes in Bengo, Bié, Cabinda, Cunene, Huambo, Huíla, Kuando Kubango, Kuanza Norte, Kuanza Sul, Lunda Norte, Moxico and Uíge Provinces. In September, similar training programmes were held in all other provinces, except Luanda, where a workshop will be held shortly. The comprehensive training programme is a follow-up to a national workshop on Sphere standards and humanitarian principles conducted by OCHA in August. The training programme is part of a multi-pronged strategy to reinforce Government capacity to take the lead in the coordination of humanitarian assistance. The programme also aims to improve planning and monitoring of humanitarian operations by applying Sphere standards and ensuring adherence to humanitarian principles.
Provincial Protection Workshops
As part of ongoing efforts to address protection issues at the provincial level, a joint training team composed of representatives from Government institutions and UN Agencies conducted provincial protection workshops in Lunda Sul and Namibe Provinces during October. Workshop participants, including representatives of Government ministries, Angolan Army and National Police liaison officers, civilian and military provincial attorneys, representatives of national and international NGOs, religious organisations and UN Agencies, worked together to draft provincial protection plans. Since December 2000, provincial workshops have been held in 12 provinces. Provincial Protection Plans have been officially approved and endorsed by Provincial Governments in six provinces, including Zaire, Malanje, Benguela, Bié, Kuando Kubango and Kuanza Norte.
1 These figures are subject to change as additional information is received from humanitarian partners operating at the field level.
2 These incidents correspond to reports provided by humanitarian partners at the field level and may not represent the total number of mine incidents in Angola during October 2001.
3 The previous Humanitarian Situation in Angola: Monthly Analysis (September 2001) stated that, "According to the Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development (MINADER), Provincial Governments plan to assist approximately 385,500 families with agricultural inputs during the current agricultural campaign. In addition, the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) plans to distribute seeds and tools to 322,000 families. Approximately 30 humanitarian organisations plan to assist 322,000 families and the International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) will cover 84,000 families." According to information provided by FAO, the humanitarian community, including UN Agencies, approximately 30 NGOs and the ICRC plan to assist 322,000 families during the agricultural campaign. Information regarding inputs from the Ministry for Agriculture and Rural Development (MINADER) is not yet available.
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