Grave concerns persist for some 20 million people in the Sahel. Recurrent conflict, erratic weather patterns, epidemics and other shocks continue to weaken the resilience of households across a region still suffering chronic levels of food insecurity and malnutrition.
An estimated 20.4 million people remain food insecure at the start of 2015. At least 2.6 million people have already crossed the crisis threshold, 70 percent of whom are in Niger, Nigeria, Mali and Chad where insecurity and poverty compound food insecurity.
Epidemics continue to demand urgent attention in 2015. Besides cholera, meningitis, Lassa and yellow fever, more recently, Ebola has been posing a serious threat to the Sahel region and has already impacted Mali, Nigeria, and Mali directly.
Beyond the chronic threats of food insecurity, malnutrition and epidemics, violent conflict in and around the Sahel region has led to a surge in population displacement. The region begins 2015 with some 2.8 million people displaced; over a million more than in early 2014. With escalating conflict in northeast Nigeria, an estimated one million people have been internally displaced. Some 150,000 Nigerian refugees have fled to neighbouring Niger, Chad and Cameroon. The volatile security situation in northern Mali continues to have a devastating impact on civilians, hampering the return of refugees, affecting markets and preventing the full restoration of basic services. Some 133,000 Malian refugees remain in Mauritania, Niger and Burkina Faso and more than 80,000 Malians remain internally displaced. As in Nigeria, high levels of insecurity in northern Mali also greatly impact the ability of humanitarians to access those in need. (Sahel: A call for humanitarian aid, 12 Feb 2015)
Due to the ongoing crisis in the Lake Chad Basin, Chad is now the seventh largest refugee-hosting country in the world with over 750,000 displaced persons, the majority of whom are refugees or Chadian returnees who fled from the Central African Republic, Libya, Nigeria, and Sudan. At the end of August, the Regional Humanitarian Coordinator for the Sahel called on the international community to ramp up its support in response to the multi-faceted humanitarian challenges affecting the country. (OCHA, 27 Aug 2015)
On 9 December 2015, United Nations agencies and partners launched the Sahel humanitarian appeal for 2016. The regional plan calls for US$1.98 billion to provide vital assistance to millions of people affected by crises in nine countries across Africa’s Sahel region. (OCHA, 9 Dec 2015)
As of 5 Jan 2016, the Strategic Response Plan for the Sahel was 44% funded. (OCHA, 15 Jan 2016)
Appeals & Funding
- Sahel Humanitarian Response Plan (HRP) 2016 EN/FR
- Humanitarian Needs Overview EN/FR
- 2014-2016 Strategic Response Plans: Sahel Region EN/FR; Burkina Faso; Cameroon; Chad; Gambia; Mali; Mauritania; Niger; Nigeria; Senegal
• Due to the security situation, humanitarian access to people in need remains highly difficult in the Far North Region and in some areas close to the border with Central Africa Republic. This results in difficulties for UNICEF and humanitarians partners to procure assistance to people in need.
Regional Office 2016 Requirements: US$20,026,000
Total affected population: 2 million
Total affected children (under 18): 1.1 million
Total people to be reached in 2016: 1 million
Total children to be reached in 2016: 800,000
2016 programme targets
400,794 children under 5 years suffering from SAM admitted into therapeutic feeding programmes
183,615 children aged 6 to 59 months in Diffa Region received vitamin A supplementation every semester Health
Total affected population: 3.9 million
Total affected children: 2.2 million
Total people to be reached in 2016: 1.7 million
Total children to be reached in 2016: 1 million
2016 programme targets
- 176,900 children aged 6 to 59 months affected by SAM admitted for treatment - 140,000 children received vitamin A supplementation and deworming
APERÇU DE LA CRISE
Le Cameroun fait face à trois crises simultanées avec des effets conjugués. Le conflit au Nigeria et les violences au Cameroun ont causé des déplacements massifs des réfugiés et des Camerounais à l’Extrême-Nord. La détérioration importante du contexte socio-économique et sécuritaire a augmenté l’insécurité alimentaire, la malnutrition et la vulnerabilité aux épidémies. Le conflit en République Centrafricaine a deplacé des milliers denréfugiés dans les régions de l’est.
APERÇU DE LA CRISE
Quatre crises majeures affectent directement 3,9 millions de personnes au Tchad parmi lesquelles 2,3 millions ont besoin d’une assistance humanitaire, dont plus de la moitié de femmes.
Crise alimentaire et nutritionnelle
• As of December 2015, an estimated 51,999 people are internally displaced by violence in the Lake region (85 sites assessed out of 132 targeted). More than 63% are children, and 51% are women. The situation remains volatile, with new displacements continuing to take place on a regular basis.
Le contexte de la région du Lac reste marqué par l’insecurité, avec cinq attaques rapportées depuis la fin de l’année 2015, dont certaines ont fait des victimes civiles : le 21 décembre à Iga près de Bol (deux morts), et le 27 décembre à Kolom à 35 km de Baga-Sola (3 morts).
Une mission conjointe (OCHA, UNICEF, HCR, OIM, UNDSS, Croix Rouge Tchadienne, Help Tchad) a eu lieu le 21 décembre sur l’axe MeliaBol sur un site spontané à 2 km de la localité de Mar, accueillant environ 3 000 déplacés en attente d’assistance.
Insecurity is still affecting the Lac region, with five attacks reported since the end of the year 2015. Some caused civilian casualties: on 21 December in Iga near Bol (two killed), and on 27 December in Kolom, 35 km from Baga-Sola (3 killed).
A joint mission (OCHA, UNICEF, HCR, IOM, UNDSS, Chadian Red Cross, Help Tchad) took place on 21 December in a spontaneous site located on the Melia-Bol road, hosting some 3,000 displaced people in need of assistance.
Avec l'appui financier de l'UNFPA, le Centre de Support en Santé International a réalisé une enquête auprès des « fonctionnaires de la rue de 40 » dans le 1er, 7ième et 9ième Arrondissements de la ville de N'Djamena. L'objectif principal de l'étude était d'identifier les connaissances, aptitudes et pratiques (CAP) de ces jeunes gens en matière de santé de la reproduction.
Niger consistently ranks at or near the bottom of the United Nations Development Program’s Human Development Index. Chronic food insecurity and infectious disease have resulted in some of the highest rates of malnutrition and mortality in the world. Over forty percent of children under five are chronically malnourished and the rates of acute malnutrition are well beyond the threshold for public health emergencies. In addition, Niger has the highest fertility rate in the world.
An estimated 84,100 refugees, IDPs, returnees and third-country nationals are currently displaced in the Lake region following continued deterioration of the security situation in this part the country.
Summary of major revisions made to emergency plan of action:
Population movements continue to take place in the Lake Chad region as insecurity continues to deteriorate. The humanitarian community estimates at 82,782 the number of refugees, IDPs, returnees and thirdcountry nationals currently displaced in the Lake region. Of these, 52,300 are IDPs from the latest wave of massive displacement which began in July 2015.
According to IOM’s DTM Round VI report (October, 2015), there are an estimated 1. 87 million IDPs as a result of the insurgency located in the three North East states of Borno, Yobe and Adamawa (including close to 1.1 million children). This presents a 5% decrease in the total number of displaced people due to the insurgency when compared to the numbers of displaced people reported in August 2015.
According to the 2015 nutrition survey (SMART methods) and the Emergency Food Security Assessment (EFSA), the nutrition and food security situations have deteriorated compared to previous years. There is an urgent need to scale up the humanitarian response to these ongoing crises in 2016.
Because of the security situation Humanitarian access to people in need remains highly difficult in the Far North Region and in some areas close to the border with Central Africa Republic.
As of 21 September, OCHA reported that 68,000 people have fled their homes since July (IDPs, Chadian returnees and refugees from Nigeria and from Niger): amongst them 47,000 are IDPs.
• Thousands of new displaced persons have been reported close to the Nigerian and Chadian borders in the Far North Region. In collaboration with Cameroonian authorities, UNICEF and other humanitarian agencies have launched rapid needs assessment.