Grave concerns persist for some 20 million people in the Sahel. Recurrent conflict, erratic weather patterns, epidemics and other shocks continue to weaken the resilience of households across a region still suffering chronic levels of food insecurity and malnutrition.
An estimated 20.4 million people remain food insecure at the start of 2015. At least 2.6 million people have already crossed the crisis threshold, 70 percent of whom are in Niger, Nigeria, Mali and Chad where insecurity and poverty compound food insecurity.
Epidemics continue to demand urgent attention in 2015. Besides cholera, meningitis, Lassa and yellow fever, more recently, Ebola has been posing a serious threat to the Sahel region and has already impacted Mali, Nigeria, and Mali directly.
Beyond the chronic threats of food insecurity, malnutrition and epidemics, violent conflict in and around the Sahel region has led to a surge in population displacement. The region begins 2015 with some 2.8 million people displaced; over a million more than in early 2014. With escalating conflict in northeast Nigeria, an estimated one million people have been internally displaced. Some 150,000 Nigerian refugees have fled to neighbouring Niger, Chad and Cameroon. The volatile security situation in northern Mali continues to have a devastating impact on civilians, hampering the return of refugees, affecting markets and preventing the full restoration of basic services. Some 133,000 Malian refugees remain in Mauritania, Niger and Burkina Faso and more than 80,000 Malians remain internally displaced. As in Nigeria, high levels of insecurity in northern Mali also greatly impact the ability of humanitarians to access those in need. (Sahel: A call for humanitarian aid, 12 Feb 2015)
Due to the ongoing crisis in the Lake Chad Basin, Chad is now the seventh largest refugee-hosting country in the world with over 750,000 displaced persons, the majority of whom are refugees or Chadian returnees who fled from the Central African Republic, Libya, Nigeria, and Sudan. At the end of August, the Regional Humanitarian Coordinator for the Sahel called on the international community to ramp up its support in response to the multi-faceted humanitarian challenges affecting the country. (OCHA, 27 Aug 2015)
On 9 December 2015, United Nations agencies and partners launched the Sahel humanitarian appeal for 2016. The regional plan calls for US$1.98 billion to provide vital assistance to millions of people affected by crises in nine countries across Africa’s Sahel region. (OCHA, 9 Dec 2015)
As of 6 May 2016, the Humanitarian Response Plan for the Sahel was 15% funded. (OCHA, 6 May 2016
Appeals & Funding
- Sahel Humanitarian Response Plan (HRP) 2016 EN/FR
- Humanitarian Needs Overview EN/FR
- 2014-2016 Strategic Response Plans: Sahel Region EN/FR; Burkina Faso; Cameroon; Chad; Gambia; Mali; Mauritania; Niger; Nigeria; Senegal
Niger - Through its Displacement Tracking Matrix (DTM), IOM has recorded a total of 60,970 migrants passing through the transit towns of Arlit and Séguédine in the Agadez region of Niger between February and April 2016. Of this total, 44,890 were recorded leaving Niger, while 16,080 were migrants entering the country. Niger is a transit country for West African migrants travelling to and from Algeria and Libya.
The majority of migrants recorded by the two flow monitoring points are recorded going from Niger to Libya (estimated 51 225 individuals or 64%). Migrants on this route tend to be young men from english speaking West African countries who intend to go towards Europe.
An estimated 12 025 migrants (15%) came into Niger from Libya. This group is majoritarily Nigerien but includes Nigerians and Malians.
21% of migrants are recorded to be travelling between Niger and Algeria. These migrants more commonly work in the gold mines in the north of Niger.
Leila Zerrougui addresses the African Union Open Session on Children and Armed Conflict
Addis Ababa, Ethiopia – Protecting schools from attacks and military use is essential to fulfil one of the promises of the 2030 Agenda: ensuring access to education for all children, Leila Zerrougui, the Special Representative of the Secretary-General for Children and Armed Conflict told members of the African Union’s Peace and Security Council during the third annual Open Session on children and armed conflict.
La planification humanitaire pour 2016 prévoit 2,3 millions de personnes dans le besoin dont 1,8 million ciblées pour une assistance humanitaire, reflétant des niveaux élevés de vulnérabilité dans tout le pays.
As of 30 April, global funding requirements to meet the needs of 89 million people across 39 countries through humanitarian response plans and appeals for 2016 amount to over US$20.3 billion. About $3.8 billion in funding has been received so far, leaving a shortfall of $16.5 billion. With the emergence of new humanitarian crises, global financial requirements have increased by around 2 per cent in the first trimester of the year.
The month saw fighting escalate again in Syria and Afghanistan, and erupt in Nagorno-Karabakh between Armenian-backed separatists and Azerbaijani forces. In Bangladesh, election violence and killings by extremist groups showed how new heights of government-opposition rivalry and state repression have benefitted violent political party wings and extremist groups alike. Political tensions intensified in Iraq and Macedonia, and security forces severely supressed opposition protests in the Republic of Congo and Gambia.
Weekly trends can fluctuate due to security conditions in the region, the political climate in Niger and neighbouring countries, presence of migrants at the flow monitoring points and availability of transport and opportunities. For more detailed analysis see the flow monitoring survey reports.
As part of a wider project to understand the profile and motivations of people migrating to the European Union, this factsheet presents key findings related to migration from Mali. Information presented here is based on interviews with key informants, who were asked to report on migration from their community. Findings presented here are based on a small, purposive sample of respondents in Gao, a key transit point for migrants passing through Mali, and should be considered indicative only.
FOOD SECURITY SNAPSHOT
Below-average cereal production gathered in 2015 due to poor distribution of rains
Prices of millet and sorghum remained mostly stable in recent months
Continued assistance required to improve access to food and protect livelihoods of food-insecure and vulnerable people, including refugees and returnees
The FAO COMMISSION for controlling the Desert Locust in the Western Region (CLCPRO) strengthens national capacities of locustaffected countries in West and Northwest Africa in planning, training, research and effective and timely response to Desert Locust invasions in order to prevent upsurges and plagues.
The Commission contributes significantly to food and livelihoods security in northern Africa through its regional approach in preventing serious damage that locusts can inflict on pastures and agricultural production in the concerned member countries.
Syria: In recent weeks, clashes between Islamic State and other non-government forces over the border area between Turkey and Syria have intensified. IDPs in camps located along the border are at risk: over 35,000 have fled the area since 14 April and are in need of protection. Additional displacement is likely.
Iraq: The humanitarian situation in besieged Fallujah continues to deteriorate. Supply lines have been cut off since December, when government forces surrounded the city. Islamic State is reportedly preventing people from leaving. Prices of basic food stuffs are 500% above December prices for the third consecutive month. Acute shortages of food, medicine and fuel, as well as cases of starvation and suicide, have been reported.
Strict vigilance is also required in northwest Africa
12 April 2016, Rome - The presence of recently discovered Desert Locust infestations in Yemen, where conflict is severely hampering control operations, poses a potential threat to crops in the region, FAO warned today. FAO urged neighbouring countries, Saudi Arabia, Oman and Iran, to mobilize survey and control teams and to take all necessary measures to prevent the destructive insects from reaching breeding areas situated in their respective territories.