As of 23 January, 82 people were reported to have died of Lassa fever. Of the total, 34 have already been confirmed to be due to the viral haemorrhagic fever, according to Nigeria’s Centre for Disease Control. The disease, which first broke out in November, has spread to 10 states. Lassa fever is endemic in Nigeria and causes outbreaks almost every year in different parts of the country, but more in some states than others particularly during the dry season. (OCHA, 26 Jan 2016)
In Benin, after one case was confirmed in the northeastern department of Borgou-Alibori, the government and its partners activated the response to the oubreak. By 2 February, there were 20 suspected cases including 9 deaths. (WHO, UNICEF, Gov't of Benin, Plan, 2 Feb 2016)
In Togo, two cases were reported in February 2016. The affected area in Togo borders with Benin. (WHO, 23 Mar 2016)
Disease epidemics result in substantial ill health and loss of lives and therefore pose a threat to global health security, undermine socio-economic lives and destabilize societies.
Le 25 janvier 2016, le point focal national RSI pour le Bénin a notifié à l’OMS une flambée de fièvre de Lassa (cf. Bulletin publié le 19 février).
Le 23 mai 2016, le Ministère béninois de la santé a déclaré la fin de cette flambée. Cette annonce a été faite 42 jours après la détection du dernier cas de fièvre de Lassa dans ce pays (10 avril 2016).
On 25 January 2016, the National IHR Focal Point of Benin notified WHO of an outbreak of Lassa fever (see DON published on 19 February).
On 23 May 2016, the Ministry of Health of Benin declared the end of the outbreak. The announcement came 42 days after the detection of the last Lassa fever case in the country (10 April 2016).
This issue focuses on the ongoing Yellow fever , Ebola Virus Disease (EVD), Cholera, Zika outbreaks and the health consequences of El Niño.
There has been re-emergence of urban Yellow Fever (YF) outbreaks in Angola that have spread to the neighboring DR Congo and some cases have been exported to China and Kenya. Another outbreak of Yellow Fever has been reported in Uganda but it is not epidemiologically linked to the Angola or DR Congo outbreaks. Instead it is linked to a YF outbreak that occurred in Northern Uganda in 2010.
As of 30 May 2016, financial requirements of UN-coordinated Humanitarian Response Plans, Flash Appeals and Regional Refugee Plans as reflected in the Global Humanitarian Overview (GHO) amount to an unprecedented US$20.8 billion and are expected to rise. These appeals are currently funded at $4.8 billion, or 23 per cent. $16 billion in financial requirements remain unmet. Overall, humanitarian operations in 2016 are funded at almost $9.2 billion.
Between August 2015 and 17 May 2016, WHO has been notified of 273 cases of Lassa fever, including 149 deaths in Nigeria. Of these, 165 cases and 89 deaths have been confirmed through laboratory testing (CFR: 53.9%). The cases were reported from 23 states in Nigeria.
Since August 2015, ten health care workers (HCW) have been infected with Lassa fever virus, of which two have died. Of these ten cases, four were nosocomial infections.
265 Epidemic focus: Lassa Fever
266 Meeting of the Strategic Advisory Group of Experts on immunization, April 2016– conclusions and recommendations
265 Gros plan sur les épidémies: Fièvre de Lassa
266 Réunion du Groupe stratégique consultatif d’experts sur la vaccination, avril 2016 – conclusions et recommandations
Three million people in the Lake Chad region are facing severe food shortages.
In Nigeria’s Borno and Yobe states, 800,000 people need immediate assistance.
Clashes between herders and farmers in Côte d’Ivoire displace over 6,000 people.
Between January and April, DRC reports 5,757 cholera cases.
Ebola resurfaces for the third time in Liberia, Guinea sees its first flare-up.
People displaced in Lake Chad Basin - 2.4M
Syria: In recent weeks, clashes between Islamic State and other non-government forces over the border area between Turkey and Syria have intensified. IDPs in camps located along the border are at risk: over 35,000 have fled the area since 14 April and are in need of protection. Additional displacement is likely.
Iraq: The humanitarian situation in besieged Fallujah continues to deteriorate. Supply lines have been cut off since December, when government forces surrounded the city. Islamic State is reportedly preventing people from leaving. Prices of basic food stuffs are 500% above December prices for the third consecutive month. Acute shortages of food, medicine and fuel, as well as cases of starvation and suicide, have been reported.
In 2016 over 125 million people living in crisis-affected countries are in need of humanitarian assistance. The humanitarian community is committed to providing aid to over 87 million of those in need. The risks to health posed by humanitarian emergencies are at an all-time high. Developments such as climate change, urbanization, population growth and worsening civil conflict are increasing the frequency and severity of many types of emergencies. Attacks on health workers and health facilities are also on the rise.
Snapshot 31 March–5 April 2016
Syria: The most serious violation of the cessation of hostilities occurred on 2 April around Aleppo, when fighting broke out between government forces and non-government forces. In addition, eight of 18 besieged areas were not reached by humanitarian assistance in February and March, including around 250,000 people in Darayya and Eastern Ghouta in Rural Damascus.
1 APRIL 2016 - Lassa fever has killed more than 160 people in West Africa, most of them in Nigeria, since November 2015. Many of these lives could have been saved if a rapid diagnostic test were available so that people could receive treatment early.
Since November 2015, Nigeria, Benin, Sierra Leone and Togo have reported more than 300 cases of Lassa fever and 164 deaths. Nigeria accounts for the majority of the cases with 266 cases and 138 deaths reported in 22 of the country’s 34 provinces. Benin has recorded 51 cases and 25 deaths, Togo and Sierra Leone each reported 2 cases.
Snapshot 23–30 March 2016
South Sudan: Between 20,000 and 50,000 people are now reported to have been displaced in Wau county, Western Bahr el Ghazal, since fighting escalated in February. Houses have been looted and burned and there are reports of killings and rape in the area around Wau town. At least 8,000 people are sheltering in public buildings or with host communities in Mboro town: food, water and shelter are priority needs.
Main conclusions and options for response
On 25 January 2016, the National IHR Focal Point of Benin notified WHO of an outbreak of Lassa fever.
Details of the cases
Snapshot 16 – 22 March
Somalia: On 15 March Al Shabaab moved into Puntland and seized control of Garad, a port town. In the following days Al Shabaab captured another coastal town in Nugaal region and attacked a security checkpoint near Bosaso. Most of the residents are reported to have fled the area. Al Shabaab has previously been active in Puntland, but generally around its base of the Galgala Mountains, west of Bosaso, and it has not attempted to take territory.
La fièvre de Lassa qui s’est déclaré dans la préfecture de l’Oti a été au centre d’une communication lors du conseil des ministres qui s’est tenu vendredi.
Deux cas ont été identifiés dont malheureusement un décès, celui d’un médecin-chirurgien américain en poste à l’hôpital de Mango.
Dès l’apparition des premiers cas, des dispositions urgentes ont été prises par le gouvernement.
Le gouvernement a présenté sa compassion aux familles des victimes et a rappelé à la population que le virus était guérissable.
Snapshot 9 – 15 March
Yemen: Insecurity in Aden is increasing, with attacks carried out on civilian targets. At least 150 people have been reported killed in the past three months, including at least 50 in March. Humanitarian actors have increasing difficulty to carry out operations. In Taizz, the west of the city has been taken by pro-Hadi forces after heavy fighting: fighting for the east continues.
Snapshot 2–8 March 2016
Malawi and Mozambique: Flooding and drought have led to the most severe food crisis Malawi has faced in a decade: 2.8 million people face acute food insecurity, including 900,000 facing Crisis (IPC Phase 3) food security outcomes. In Mozambique, an estimated 600,000 people are in Crisis due to drought. In addition, 9,300 Mozambicans in Malawi who fled armed conflict need WASH, health and shelter assistance.