On 13 May 2015, 15 cases of acute diarrhoeal disease among Burundian refugees in Tanzania were reportedly negative for cholera. However, on 16 May, two samples from the Nyarugusu camp in Kigoma region tested positive, and the number of acute diarrhoea diseases cases rapidly climbed to over 1,000 cases. On 17 May, 13 additional samples tested positive for cholera. (WHO, 19 May 2015)
The Ministry of Health and Social Welfare (MOHSW) of Tanzania has notified WHO of new foci of cholera outbreaks in the country. As of 13 October, 13 regions have been affected, namely Dar es Salaam, Morogoro, Pwani, Kigoma, Kilimanjaro, Iringa, Dodoma, Geita, Mara, Singida, Shinyaga, Mwanza and Zanzibar. As of 19 October, the cumulative number of cases is 4,835 cases, including 68 deaths. The region of Dar es Salam accounts for 72% of all reported cases (3,460). Zanzibar has reported 140 cases. (WHO, 21 Sep 2015)
In January-March 2016, [n]ew regions began to experience cholera transmission, include Iringa, Manyara and Mbeya. There was an increase in new cholera cases in Morogoro, Mwanza, Mara, Dodoma, Singida, Arusha and Simiyu. In April-May 2016, [...] new Cholera cases are still being reported in regions across Tanzania mainland, there is a reduction in the new cholera cases and deaths in the hot spot regions. (IFRC, 31 May 2016)
As of 18 May 2015, the Burundi Health Ministry confirmed 11 cases of cholera under treatment in the Nyanza Lac health center in the southern Makamba Province, which borders Tanzania (OCHA, 18 May 2015).
As of 21 May, more than 2,400 suspected cases of cholera, including 33 deaths, had been reported among Burundian refugees in Tanzania; on the Burundi side of the border there are 15 suspected cholera cases. (UNICEF, 21 May 2015)
The cholera outbreak in Nyanza Lac Commune, Makamba Province is now under control with only one case reported in the treatment centers in the last two weeks. Since the outbreak on 14 May, a total of 181 cholera cases have been reported. (OCHA, 31 Jul 2015)
Two cholera outbreaks were declared in 3 different districts in southern Burundi, with a cumulative total of 22 cases with no deaths reported in 2016. All patients have been treated in a timely manner as a result of preparedness, including the prepositioning of cholera kits in cholera-prone health districts. To address timely and quality reporting of cholera, UNICEF continued its support to the MoH by providing training on Rapid Pro to healthcare workers in cholera-prone districts and provinces. (UNICEF, 30 Jun 2016)
Rupa Narra, MD1,2*; Justin M. Maeda, MD3*; Herilinda Temba, MD3; Janneth Mghamba, MD3; Ali Nyanga, MD3; Ashley L. Greiner, MD1,4; Muhammad Bakari, PhD3; Karlyn D. Beer, PhD1,2; Sae-Rom Chae, MD1,2; Kathryn G. Curran, PhD1,2; Rachel B. Eidex, PhD5; James J. Gibson, MD5; Thomas Handzel, PhD4; Stephen J. Kiberiti3; Rogath S. Kishimba, MD6; Haji Lukupulo6; Theophil Malibiche3; Khalid Massa, PhD3; Amani E. Massay6; Lindsey S. McCrickard, DVM1,2; Geofrey J. Mchau3; Vida Mmbaga, MD3; Ahmed A. Mohamed, PhD6; Elibariki R. Mwakapeje3; Emmanuel Nestory6; Anna E.
Pleasing to report is the noticeable decline in cases in Tanzania – for week six, only 20 cases were reported and indeed, the daily bulletin for 19 February states that “No (0) new suspected cholera case was reported”. This is the first zero case report since the current outbreak started in August 2015!
The outbreak in Soyo, North West Angola has now spread to Cabinda; the Angolan enclave north of the Congo river (see map), with a total of 146 cases reported between 13 December 2016 and 18 January 2017 (latest Government Bulletin). The Ministry of Health has activated the Cholera prevention Commission (Comissão de luta contra o cólera), and have produced a national strategic epidemic response plan on 09 January 2017. This lays down responsibilities at all levels from National to municipal authorities.
Total people in need: 432,430
Total children (<18) in need: 244,560
Total people to be reached in 2017: 352,820
Total children to be reached in 2017: 225,450
The cycle of violence and unrest that Burundi has been experiencing since April 2015 has become protracted. An estimated 110,000 people are displaced and 325,000 have fled to neighbouring countries.1 Communities are experiencing the erosion of coping mechanisms, with chronically high levels of food and nutrition insecurity, as well as recurring flooding and displacement. The protection crisis is disproportionately affecting children, who make up approximately half of Burundi’s population.
A. Situation analysis
Description of the disaster
Summary of major revisions made to emergency plan of action:
INTRODUCTION AND BACKGROUND
Tanzania has been a consistent and generous host to millions of refugees over the years. The country has supported UNHCR and partners in all three durable solutions - from voluntary repatriation to countries of origin, resettlement to other countries willing to share the burden of displacement, to the unprecedented gift of citizenship for almost 200,000 former 1972 Burundian refugees. The test of time did not weaken the generosity; when the ongoing political tension in Burundi caused thousands of Burundians to flee to Tanzania.
A. Situation analysis
Description of the disaster
433 Cholera, 2015
433 Choléra, 2015
This issue focuses on the Yellow fever, Cholera, Zika Virus Disease and Chikungunya outbreaks.
During the period under review, there have been protracted urban Yellow Fever (YF) outbreaks in Angola that have spread to the neighboring DR Congo and there have been exported cases to China and Kenya. Another outbreak of Yellow Fever was reported in Uganda but was not epidemiologically linked to the Angola or DR Congo outbreaks. The Uganda YF outbreak was rapidly and effectively contained.
51 Water User Committees were formed in Maaji, Ayilo II, Olua I & II and Oliji settlements to improve operation & maintenance of water points serving a total of 27,387 people, mostly refugees from South Sudan in June, 2016.
Over 5,200 children were immunized against Polio and Measles in Rhino Camp Refugee settlement, Arua District in June 2016.
During the last six months, UNICEF, OHCHR and partners conducted close monitoring of child rights violations and undertook advocacy on behalf of arbitrarily arrested children, leading to the successful release of 67 children.
In the context of expulsions and detentions of schoolchildren for vandalism of schoolbooks, UNICEF and partners successfully advocated for the release of 6 children from Muramvya prison and provided legal assistance for 9 additional children in Ruyigi.
This issue focuses on the protracted Yellow fever outbreak in Angola and the DR Congo , the Ebola Virus Disease (EVD) survivor monitoring, the protracted Cholera outbreaks in several countries, the Chikungunya out-break in Kenya and an outbreak in South Sudan that is still under investigation.
The protracted urban Yellow Fever (YF) outbreak in Angola has spread to the neighboring DR Congo and cases have been exported to China and Kenya.
Disease epidemics result in substantial ill health and loss of lives and therefore pose a threat to global health security, undermine socio-economic lives and destabilize societies.
297 Epidemic focus:
298 Pneumococcal meningitis outbreaks in sub-Saharan Africa
302 Influenza vaccine response during the start of a pandemic report of a WHO informal consultation held in Geneva,
Switzerland 29 June – 1 July 2015
297 Gros plan sur les épidémies:
298 Flambées de méningite à pneumocoque en Afrique subsaharienne
Go Back to School (GBS) campaigns have started in the eight sub counties of Arua and seven sub counties of Adjumani in preparation for second term which starts early June 2016.
UNICEF supported the installation of six solar suitcases in six health facilities in transit as well as refugee settlements in Isingiro district to provide sufficient lighting in the operation theatre, delivery rooms and maternity wards.
This issue focuses on the ongoing Yellow fever , Ebola Virus Disease (EVD), Cholera, Zika outbreaks and the health consequences of El Niño.
There has been re-emergence of urban Yellow Fever (YF) outbreaks in Angola that have spread to the neighboring DR Congo and some cases have been exported to China and Kenya. Another outbreak of Yellow Fever has been reported in Uganda but it is not epidemiologically linked to the Angola or DR Congo outbreaks. Instead it is linked to a YF outbreak that occurred in Northern Uganda in 2010.
• Successful advocacy by UNICEF and partners led to the transfer of 60 boys detained and held in adult prisons throughout the country to reeducation centers for children in Rumonge and Ruyigi.
• 31 children accused of participation in armed groups last year completed a 3-month vocational training programme and received kits to facilitate their community reintegration.
An extensive regional scale crop failure is expected in Southern Africa following an extremely dry cropping season. Consequently, the current regional cereal deficit of 7.9 million tonnes will increase steeply and unprecedented food price movements will continue through to the next harvest season. This will aggravate the food and nutrition security, health and HIV situation in the region.