On 13 May 2015, 15 cases of acute diarrhoeal disease among Burundian refugees in Tanzania were reportedly negative for cholera. However, on 16 May, two samples from the Nyarugusu camp in Kigoma region tested positive, and the number of acute diarrhoea diseases cases rapidly climbed to over 1,000 cases. On 17 May, 13 additional samples tested positive for cholera. (WHO, 19 May 2015)
The Ministry of Health and Social Welfare (MOHSW) of Tanzania has notified WHO of new foci of cholera outbreaks in the country. As of 13 October, 13 regions have been affected, namely Dar es Salaam, Morogoro, Pwani, Kigoma, Kilimanjaro, Iringa, Dodoma, Geita, Mara, Singida, Shinyaga, Mwanza and Zanzibar. As of 19 October, the cumulative number of cases is 4,835 cases, including 68 deaths. The region of Dar es Salam accounts for 72% of all reported cases (3,460). Zanzibar has reported 140 cases. (WHO, 21 Sep 2015)
In January-March 2016, [n]ew regions began to experience cholera transmission, include Iringa, Manyara and Mbeya. There was an increase in new cholera cases in Morogoro, Mwanza, Mara, Dodoma, Singida, Arusha and Simiyu. In April-May 2016, [...] new Cholera cases are still being reported in regions across Tanzania mainland, there is a reduction in the new cholera cases and deaths in the hot spot regions. (IFRC, 31 May 2016)
As of 18 May 2015, the Burundi Health Ministry confirmed 11 cases of cholera under treatment in the Nyanza Lac health center in the southern Makamba Province, which borders Tanzania (OCHA, 18 May 2015).
As of 21 May, more than 2,400 suspected cases of cholera, including 33 deaths, had been reported among Burundian refugees in Tanzania; on the Burundi side of the border there are 15 suspected cholera cases. (UNICEF, 21 May 2015)
The cholera outbreak in Nyanza Lac Commune, Makamba Province is now under control with only one case reported in the treatment centers in the last two weeks. Since the outbreak on 14 May, a total of 181 cholera cases have been reported. (OCHA, 31 Jul 2015)
Two cholera outbreaks were declared in 3 different districts in southern Burundi, with a cumulative total of 22 cases with no deaths reported in 2016. All patients have been treated in a timely manner as a result of preparedness, including the prepositioning of cholera kits in cholera-prone health districts. To address timely and quality reporting of cholera, UNICEF continued its support to the MoH by providing training on Rapid Pro to healthcare workers in cholera-prone districts and provinces. (UNICEF, 30 Jun 2016)
During the warmer, wetter weather, 50,000 additional cases occur in East Africa as compared to years without El Niño
Cholera cases in East Africa increase by roughly 50,000 during El Niño, the cyclical weather occurrence that profoundly changes global weather patterns, new Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health research suggests.
The findings, researchers say, could help health ministries anticipate future cholera surges during El Niño years and save lives.
• Tanzania outbreak continues but with significant reduction in cases.
• A small outbreak in North Western Zambia bordering with DRC is reported to be under control and managed by MOH.
• Angola has seen a reduction in cases but the last official report available is that of week 8 - 26 February.
This weekly update focuses on selected acute public health emergencies occurring in the WHO African region. WHO AFRO is currently monitoring 34 events, two Grade 3, six Grade 2, two Grade 1, and 24 ungraded events.
This week, two new events have been reported: meningitis outbreak in Cameroon and cholera outbreak in Malawi.
The Joint Cholera Initiative for Southern Africa (JCISA) is a multi-agency technical partnership bringing together WHO, UNICEF, UNOCHA and OXFAM supporting national governments with the primary goal being to “strengthen regional capacity and collaboration in order to ensure more timely, integrated and effective technical support to countries in the areas of cholera preparedness, response and resilience”.
An outbreak of fall armyworm, a new pest in the region, has been reported in Zambia, Malawi, Zimbabwe, Botswana, South Africa, Namibia and Swaziland. Regionally, around 330,000 ha of staple crops (especially maize) have been affected. The remaining SADC mainland countries remain at high risk.
Rupa Narra, MD1,2*; Justin M. Maeda, MD3*; Herilinda Temba, MD3; Janneth Mghamba, MD3; Ali Nyanga, MD3; Ashley L. Greiner, MD1,4; Muhammad Bakari, PhD3; Karlyn D. Beer, PhD1,2; Sae-Rom Chae, MD1,2; Kathryn G. Curran, PhD1,2; Rachel B. Eidex, PhD5; James J. Gibson, MD5; Thomas Handzel, PhD4; Stephen J. Kiberiti3; Rogath S. Kishimba, MD6; Haji Lukupulo6; Theophil Malibiche3; Khalid Massa, PhD3; Amani E. Massay6; Lindsey S. McCrickard, DVM1,2; Geofrey J. Mchau3; Vida Mmbaga, MD3; Ahmed A. Mohamed, PhD6; Elibariki R. Mwakapeje3; Emmanuel Nestory6; Anna E.
Pleasing to report is the noticeable decline in cases in Tanzania – for week six, only 20 cases were reported and indeed, the daily bulletin for 19 February states that “No (0) new suspected cholera case was reported”. This is the first zero case report since the current outbreak started in August 2015!
The outbreak in Soyo, North West Angola has now spread to Cabinda; the Angolan enclave north of the Congo river (see map), with a total of 146 cases reported between 13 December 2016 and 18 January 2017 (latest Government Bulletin). The Ministry of Health has activated the Cholera prevention Commission (Comissão de luta contra o cólera), and have produced a national strategic epidemic response plan on 09 January 2017. This lays down responsibilities at all levels from National to municipal authorities.
A. Situation analysis
Description of the disaster
Summary of major revisions made to emergency plan of action:
INTRODUCTION AND BACKGROUND
Tanzania has been a consistent and generous host to millions of refugees over the years. The country has supported UNHCR and partners in all three durable solutions - from voluntary repatriation to countries of origin, resettlement to other countries willing to share the burden of displacement, to the unprecedented gift of citizenship for almost 200,000 former 1972 Burundian refugees. The test of time did not weaken the generosity; when the ongoing political tension in Burundi caused thousands of Burundians to flee to Tanzania.
A. Situation analysis
Description of the disaster
- 433 Cholera, 2015
- 433 Choléra, 2015
This issue focuses on the Yellow fever, Cholera, Zika Virus Disease and Chikungunya outbreaks.
During the period under review, there have been protracted urban Yellow Fever (YF) outbreaks in Angola that have spread to the neighboring DR Congo and there have been exported cases to China and Kenya. Another outbreak of Yellow Fever was reported in Uganda but was not epidemiologically linked to the Angola or DR Congo outbreaks. The Uganda YF outbreak was rapidly and effectively contained.
51 Water User Committees were formed in Maaji, Ayilo II, Olua I & II and Oliji settlements to improve operation & maintenance of water points serving a total of 27,387 people, mostly refugees from South Sudan in June, 2016.
Over 5,200 children were immunized against Polio and Measles in Rhino Camp Refugee settlement, Arua District in June 2016.
During the last six months, UNICEF, OHCHR and partners conducted close monitoring of child rights violations and undertook advocacy on behalf of arbitrarily arrested children, leading to the successful release of 67 children.
In the context of expulsions and detentions of schoolchildren for vandalism of schoolbooks, UNICEF and partners successfully advocated for the release of 6 children from Muramvya prison and provided legal assistance for 9 additional children in Ruyigi.
This issue focuses on the protracted Yellow fever outbreak in Angola and the DR Congo , the Ebola Virus Disease (EVD) survivor monitoring, the protracted Cholera outbreaks in several countries, the Chikungunya out-break in Kenya and an outbreak in South Sudan that is still under investigation.
The protracted urban Yellow Fever (YF) outbreak in Angola has spread to the neighboring DR Congo and cases have been exported to China and Kenya.
Disease epidemics result in substantial ill health and loss of lives and therefore pose a threat to global health security, undermine socio-economic lives and destabilize societies.
- 297 Epidemic focus: Cholera
- 298 Pneumococcal meningitis outbreaks in sub-Saharan Africa
- 302 Influenza vaccine response during the start of a pandemic report of a WHO informal consultation held in Geneva, Switzerland 29 June – 1 July 2015
Go Back to School (GBS) campaigns have started in the eight sub counties of Arua and seven sub counties of Adjumani in preparation for second term which starts early June 2016.
UNICEF supported the installation of six solar suitcases in six health facilities in transit as well as refugee settlements in Isingiro district to provide sufficient lighting in the operation theatre, delivery rooms and maternity wards.