Kenya reported a cholera outbreak that affected 30 of its 47 counties. The outbreak begun on 26 December 2014, in Nairobi County and was later reported in other counties with the latest being in Mandera and Tana River counties. Mandera County had also been experiencing a febrile illness presenting with joint pains that begun in May 2016...Mandera County...was the latest county to report cholera outbreak...The outbreak was first reported in March 2016, with 894 cases reported by 12 April 2016. By the end of the response, 1629 cases had been reported with 18 deaths recorded - Case Fatality Rate (CFR) of 1.1%. KRCS reached a total of 391,941 people through awareness sessions conducted in house to house visits including revisits, demonstration of hand washing and hand washing facilities. (IFRC, 31 Jan 2017)
The Cholera outbreak continues in the drought affected Tana River County with sixteen new cases of cholera and one death reported in the last weeks. UNICEF continues to support multi-sectoral cholera prevention and coordination efforts to support national and county government counterparts through technical assistance, strengthening of Cholera Treatment Units (CTUs), capacity building of staff, and improved information systems.
During the reporting period, over 134,000 children under five accessed life-saving interventions including management of diarrhea using ORS/Zinc through health facilities and limited outreach services, and benefitted from dissemination of key messages on disease prevention. (UNICEF, 06 April 2017)
The ECDC Communicable Disease Threats Report (CDTR) is a weekly bulletin for epidemiologists and health professionals on active public health threats. This issue covers the period 16-22 April 2017 and includes updates on influenza, cholera, poliomyelitis, measles, legionnaires' disease and yellow fever.
• Since the declaration of the drought emergency by the Government of Kenya in February, humanitarian partners are working together with national authorities to scale up response activities targeting vulnerable people and families in the counties most affected by the drought.
• Over 1, 2 million people were reached in March through WFP, and Kenya Red Cross Society (KRCS) food and cash programmes.
Rainfall performance: March 2017
During the warmer, wetter weather, 50,000 additional cases occur in East Africa as compared to years without El Niño
Cholera cases in East Africa increase by roughly 50,000 during El Niño, the cyclical weather occurrence that profoundly changes global weather patterns, new Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health research suggests.
The findings, researchers say, could help health ministries anticipate future cholera surges during El Niño years and save lives.
Due to delayed onset of March to May long rains below average rainfall is forecast, further exacerbating the drought situation and its impact on children.
With sixteen new cases of Cholera and one death reported from the drought affected Tana River County, Cholera outbreaks are likely to increase.
Rainfall forecast (mm)
Rainfall performance: Between March 1 and 10, Djibouti, Somalia, central and eastern Ethiopia, and northeastern and eastern Kenya recorded less than 6 millimetres of rainfall. Less than 75 per cent of the long term average rainfall was observed over much of Ethiopia and Kenya, in parts of Uganda, and in southwestern Somalia. However moderately wet conditions prevailed in northeastern Ethiopia and northern Somalia during March due to rainfall at 125 per cent levels compared to the long term average.
This weekly update focuses on selected acute public health emergencies occurring in the WHO African region. WHO AFRO is currently monitoring 36 events, two Grade 3, six Grade 2, two Grade 1, and 26 ungraded events.
Drought Situation & EW Phase Classification
The County continues experiencing severe vegetation deficit from the ongoing dry spell. Generally, vegetation cover in the county is below normal.
No major rains received in February. On average the county received negligible amounts at 0.57 mm.
The Government of Kenya estimates that the current number of people needing assistance has gone up to 3 million, and is expected to rise to 4 million by July (2017 Kenya Flash Appeal).
On 16 March 2017, the UN and humanitarian partners launched a Flash Appeal for US$ 165.71 million to reach 2.6 million people with life-saving assistance and protection for the next 10 months (1 March to 31 December 2017).
The Disasters Emergency Committee (DEC) is today warning of an alarming surge in the transmission of waterborne diseases across East Africa.
Prolonged drought, conflict and food and water shortages have left 16 million people on the brink of starvation and resulted in a spike in the number of cases of Acute Watery Diarrhoea (AWD) – a key symptom of cholera.
This weekly update focuses on selected acute public health emergencies occurring in the WHO African region. WHO AFRO is currently monitoring 32 events, two Grade 3, six Grade 2, two Grade 1, and 22 ungraded events.
This week two new events have been reported: malaria outbreak in Burundi and landslide in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.
Kenya Flash Appeal: $165.71 million Required to reach 2.6 million people with life-saving assistance and protection in the next 10 months
• The Government of Kenya has projected that the number of food insecure people will rise from the current 2.7 million people to 4 million by April 2017.
• The UN and humanitarian partners are planning to launch a flash appeal in response to the ongoing drought.
• A total of 1,274 schools/ECD centres with an enrolment of about 246,000 children have no access to water in 12 counties.
About 2.7 million people in Kenya are now in need of relief assistance, up from 1.3 million in August 20161 . The President of Kenya declared a national disaster on 10 February 2017 and has called for international support.
The results of SMART surveys conducted in January and February 2017 to monitor the emergency nutrition situation show very high levels of global acute malnutrition (GAM) (above 30 per cent) in three northern counties (Turkana North, North Hor of Marsabit, and Mandera)
A. Situation analysis
Description of the disaster Kenya reported cholera outbreak that affected 30 of its 47 counties. The outbreak begun on 26 December 2014, in Nairobi County and was later reported in other counties with the latest being in Mandera and Tana River counties.
Mandera County had also been experiencing a febrile illness presenting with joint pains that begun in May 2016.
This paper was produced for a meeting of the Inter-Governmental Authority for Development (IGAD) in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, 19-21 January 2017
SUMMARY – KEY MESSAGES
• The failure of the 2016 October-December rains across parts of the Horn of Africa has led to a devastating drought in Somalia, south-eastern Ethiopia, and northern and eastern Kenya. More than 15 million people in these three countries are facing food and water shortages, and famine is now a possibility in Somalia.
One of the strongest El Niño events ever recorded has affected more than 51 million people and placed more than 26.5 million children at risk of malnutrition, water shortages and disease in 10 countries in the region.1 In 2016, more than 1 million children were targeted for treatment for severe acute malnutrition (SAM),2 and water shortages, protection concerns and the deterioration of basic social services remain key concerns.
Total affected population: 2,021,000
Total affected children: 869,000
Total people to be reached in 2017: 800,000
Total children to be reached in 2017: 600,000
434,500 children under 5 accessing an integrated package of health interventions, including for the management of diarrhoeal diseases
232,000 persons affected by crises are reached with safe water interventions
By GALGALO BOCHA
The two , all women, succumbed to the disease at the weekend as the public health department in the sub-county imposed a ban on feasting during funerals and weddings to curb escalation of the outbreak.
Tana Delta Sub-County Medical Officer of Health Nicholas Mwenda said the woman developed symptoms of the disease on returning home and succumbed to it on Saturday in Malakoteni.